Contents

List of Authors v

Preface xvii

Colour Plates xix

1 Introduction to the Cyanobacteria 1-11

Brian A. Whitton and Malcolm Potts

Summary 1

I. What are Cyanobacteria? 1

II. Ecological Diversity in the Past and Present 1

III. Morphological Diversity 3

IV. Taxonomy 4

V. Molecular Ecology 7

VI. Interactions with Other Organisms 8

VII. Blooms and Toxins 8

VIII. Cyanobacteria as Health Food 8

IX. Use of Cultures and Culture Media 9

X. The Future 9 References 10

2 The Fossil Record: Tracing the Roots of the Cyanobacterial Lineage 13-35

J. William Schopf

Summary 13

I. Tracing theRoots of Cyanobacteria: Progress and Problems 14

II. Ancient Cyanobacteria 17

III. How Old is the Cyanobacterial Lineage? 24

IV. Paleobiology: Fossils, Geology, and Geochemistry 25

V. Paleobiology: Final Arbiter of Competing Theories 32 Acknowledgements 33 References 33

3 Cyanobacteria in Geothermal Habitats 37-59

David M. Ward & Richard W. Castenholz

Summary 37

I. Introduction 38

II. Distribution of Thermophilic Cyanobacteria Based on

Morphology and Enrichment Culture 38

III. Distribution of Cyanobacteria Based on

Molecular Analysis 43

IV. Physiological and Behavioral Ecology of Cyanobacteria ofGeothermal Habitats 50

V. Conclusion 56 Acknowledgements 56 References 56

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