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Summary 282

I. Introduction 282

II. Hypersaline Environments and theirCyanobacterial Communities 283

III. Physiological Propertiesof the Major HalophilicCyanobacteria 289

IV. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis by Cyanobacteria in

Hypersaline Environments 292

V. Osmotic Adaptation of Cyanobacteria Living at

High Salt Concentrations 294

VI. Interactions Between Cyanobacteria and other Microorganisms in Hypersaline Environments 299

VII. Biotechnological Aspects of HalophilicCyanobacteria 300

VIII. Conclusions 301 Acknowledgements 301 References 301

11 Oil Pollution and Cyanobacteria 307-319

Samir S. Radwan and Redha H. Al-Hasan

Summary 307

I. Introduction 307

II. Composition of Crude Oil 307

III. Biodegradability of Hydrocarbons 308

IV. Cyanobacteria in the Biogenesis of Oil 309

V. Hydrocarbon-Degradation Potential of Cyanobacteria 310

VI. Concluding Remarks 316 Acknowledgements 316 References 316

12 Cyanobacterial Dominance in the Polar Regions 321-340

Warwick F. Vincent

Summary 321

I. Introduction 322

II. Habitats and Communities 323

III. Biodiversity andEndemism 330

IV. Ecophysiology of Polar Cyanobacteria 330

V. Why Do Cyanobacteria Dominate (Or Not)? 335 Acknowledgements 337 References 338

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