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Summary 62

I. Introduction 62

II. Microbial Mats, Stromatolites and their Environments 63

III. TheOrganisms: Cyanobacteria that Build Microbial Mats 71

IV. Motility, Chemo-and PhototaxisofCyanobacteriain Microbial Mats 75

V. Carbon Metabolism 78

VI. Calcification in Mats and Stromatolites 90

VII. Nitrogen Metabolism and Nitrogen Fixation 95

VIII. Cyanobacteria and the SulfurCycle in Microbial Mats 105

IX. InteractionsofCyanobacteriawith Iron 108

X. Phosphorus in Microbial Mats 110

XI. Conclusions 111 Acknowledgements 112 References 112

5 Marine Plankton 121-148

Hans W. Paerl

Summary 121

I. Introduction 122

II. Key Functional Groups of Marine Planktonic Cyanobacteria 123

III. Planktonic Cyanobacterial Habitats: Physical, Chemical and Biotic Considerations 128

IV. Synthesis: The Ecosystem Perspective 142 Acknowledgements 144 References 144

6 Freshwater Blooms 149-194

Roderick L. Oliver and George G. Ganf

I. Introduction 150

II. Bloom-FormingCyanobacteria 150

III. Distribution 151

IV. Gas Vacuoles, Gas Vesicles, Buoyancy and its Regulation 154

V. Mixing Regimes and Cyanobacteria 159

VI. Physical Control ofCyanobacteria 167

VII. Cell Size, Growth RateandTemperature 169

VIII. LightCapture 170

IX. Nutrients 174

X. Phosphorus 175

XI. Nitrogen 176

XII. Responses ofCyanobacteria to N and P 178

XIII. Inorganic Carbon 184

XIV. Grazing 185

XV. Concluding Remarks 186 References 189

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