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Summary 466

I. Introduction 466

II. Natural Communities 466

III. Evolution 474

IV. Physiology and Growth 485

V. Patents and Applications 494

VI. A Chronology of Nostoc 495

VII. Epilogue 498 Acknowledgements 498 References 498

18 Arthrospira(Spirulina):Systematicsand Ecophysiology 505-522

Avigad Vonshakand Luisa Tomaselli

Summary 505

I. Introduction 506

II. Morphology 507

III. Systematics 508

IV. Occurrence and Distribution 510

V. Physiology of Arthrospira 514

VI. Concluding Remarks 519 References 520

19 Symbiotic Interactions 523-561

David G. Adams

Summary 523

I. Introduction 524

II. The Symbiosesand theirEnvironmental Impact 525

III. The Symbionts 536

IV. Host-Cyanobacteria Interactions Prior to Infection 539

V. Host Structures and their Infection 541

VI. Host-Cyanobiontlnteractions Post-Infection 546

VII. Reconstitution oftheSymbioses 552

VIII. Concluding Remarks 552 Acknowledgements 553 References 553

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