Seed collected by foresters in managed Tyszkie-stands, probably not always of natural origin. wicz 1934b Lack of seeds from stands of spruceless belt. The differences between northeastern (boreal) and southern (mountain) populations are described.

The author interprets the results based on an Dyakowska a priori assumption of existence of a 1964

spruceless belt (for an alternative view, see Srodon 1967a, b). Lack of samples from the spruceless belt. The results confirm differences between boreal and mountain populations.

Samples from Bialowieza and Tatra Mts are compared. Spruce from Bialowieza orginates from western (central) Europe and not from the eastern portion of the species contemporary range.

Samples from Bialowieza and Czarnohora Mts (eastern Carpathians) are compared. The spruce from Bialowieza resembles provences from the north and northeast. The spruceless belt does not form a distinct limit between the northern and Carpathian populations, but differences exist between populations from western and eastern Carpathians.

The subfossil and contemporary cones from the western Carpathians do not manifest differ.

The frequencies of the form europaea and acuminata indicate that the polessian populations are of Carpathian origin.

Paczoski 1925

Korzeniew-ski 1953

Staszkie-wicz 1966, 1967, 1976


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