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Efimov et al. 2000

* together with Abies alba

* together with Abies alba

Picea abies reaches its upper altitudinal limits about 200-300 m above the forest tree line. It occurs as isolated individuals or in groups in more or less deformed form (see Chapter 11) in shrub communities of Pinus mugo, Alnus viridis, Salix silesiaca, Sorbus aucuparia, etc. (Fig. 4.6). It grows also in the alpine meadow communities as polycormic individuals 1-2 m tall.

Krystyna Boratynska, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Komik.

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