Male Cones

Norway spruce is monecious; both male (staminate) and female (ovulate) cones are borne on reproductively mature individuals. The microsporangiate strobili are formed of inflorescences in clusters of 10-20 and are approximately 2.5 cm in length. The strobili are located on the lower portion of one-year-old shoots between the needles. Their color is highly variable, but mostly yellow to red. They are developed in the middle and lower portions of the tree crown. Each inflorescence contains about ten stamina, each bearing two pollen sacs. Under favorable dry and warm atmospheric conditions, the sacs open and release the pollen grains. The pollen grains have two air sacs

Figure 2.1. Norway spruce habit and form (photo A. Boratynski)

A, C - growth habit of trees at the upper mountain forest belt; B - dense ramification of the crown; D - trunk of an old tree with typical callus swellings at the branch bases

Figure 2.2. Norway spruce trees in the lower montane belt (photo A. Boratynski) A-B a single old tree up to 40 m tall in a beech woodland; C-D - old and young Norway spruce
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