Table of contents

1. Paleorecord of Norway spruce 1

Andrzej Srodon , Kazimierz Tobolski

2. Morphology 9

Tadeusz Przybylski

3. Taxonomy 15

Wladyslaw Bugala

4. Geographic distribution 23

Krystyna Boratynska

5. The Central European disjunctions in the range of Norway Spruce . . 37 Adam Boratynski

6. Anatomy, embryology, and karyology. Bud structure and shoot development 49

Alina Hejnowicz

7. Growth and nutrition 71

7.1. Hormonal regulation of growth and development 71

Stanislawa Pukacka

7.2. Mineral nutrition 80

Henryk Fober

8. Reproduction 97

8.1. Reproductive development 97

Wladyslaw Chalupka

8.2. Vegetative propagation 107

Wladyslaw Barzdajn

9. Genetics 115

9.1. Provenance variation and inheritance 115

Maciej Giertych

9.2. Biochemical genetics 147

Leon Mejnartowicz & Andrzej Lewandowski

10. Mycorrhiza 157

10.1.Themycorrhizal status of Norway spruce 157

Maria L. Rudawska

10.2. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and environmental stresses 182

Barbara Kieliszewska-Rokicka

11.Outline of ecology 195

11.1. Ecology 195

Jerzy Modrzynski

11.2. Community dynamics of Norway spruce 221

Wladyslaw Danielewicz & Pawel Pawlaczyk

12.Tree health 255

12.1. Major infectious diseases 255

Malgorzata Manka

12.2. Bark beetles 284

Jacek Michalski

13.Silviculture of Norway Spruce 295

Stanislaw Szymanski

14.Norway spruce function in polluted environments 309

14.1. Sensitivity to environmental pollution 309

Piotr Karolewski

14.2. Effects of pollutants on needle and wood anatomy 322

Antoni Werner

15.Wood properties and uses 333

Janusz Surminski

References 343

Authors' Index 429

Index of Names of Organisms 447

Subject Index 461

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