Nuclear War Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more here...

Alive after the Fall Review Summary

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Author: Alexander Cain
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My Alive after the Fall Review Review

Highly Recommended

I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Studies on Indirect Effects of Nuclear

Criticism by the Federation of American Scientists (FAS) for too 'optimistic' NAS conclusions about potential impacts on remote, noncombatant countries became justified 7 years later. Invited to contribute on ozone impacts to a first international, comprehensive nuclear war risk study commissioned by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and first published in its environmental journal AMBIO (1982), Paul Crutzen and John Birks were surprised to find unknown, severe effects due to the smoke from 'postnuclear' fires. A key mechanism like this was missing since the early speculations on changes of weather and climate due to nuclear war. To grip consequences of the changing military policy away from 'assured destruction', the US Office of Technology Assessment (OTA 1979) had just analyzed a range of scenarios in an influential war risk study, from attacks on cities and oil refineries to one-sided counter-force and countervalue strikes. High-altitude bursts were mentioned as critical but...

Nuclear Weapons Tests as a Source

Significant amounts of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons took place from 1945 to 1980. The first nuclear weapons test, TRINITY, was conducted on a steel tower at Alamogordo in the south-central New Mexico on 16 July 1945. The nuclear explosion creates a radioactive cloud that usually takes the form of a huge mushroom. Explosion converts a small atomic mass into an enormous amount of energy through nuclear fission or fusion. Fission releases energy by splitting uranium or plutonium atoms into radioactive elements. Fusion, triggered by a fission explosion that forces tritium or deuterium atoms to combine into larger atoms, produces more powerful explosive yields than fission. The nuclear weapons test resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive debris to the environment. The debris spread over large areas downwind of test sites, depending on the heights of bursts, the After the TRINITY test, the Soviet Union conducted its first nuclear weapons test at a site...

Nuclear Weapons Testing

The use of nuclear devices in weapons is the primary cause of radioactive fallout, although the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and various volcanic eruptions have also contributed. Tritium (3H) and several isotopes of iodine, cesium and strontium are found in the environment largely because of nuclear testing. In the United States, most radioactive waste is a by-product of nuclear weapons production. It is estimated that 70 of U.S. radioactive waste results from defense department activities (Eisenbud 1987). The DOE is currently trying to remedy many defense sites due to past poor waste management practices.

Nuclear Winter Modeling A Sketch

These early 3-D 'nuclear winter' studies were admittedly quick shots their immobile smoke stayed uninfluenced by atmospheric motions, did not interact with the hydrological cycle to become washed out, and could not buoyantly rise by solar heating. Though state-of-the-art in the early 1980s, artificial model climates had also to be left behind for more realistic assessments. Michael MacCracken and John Walton of the LLNL and the CCAS team introduced more realistic feedbacks into their two-layer GCMs, whereas the NCAR group focused on the model 'physics' first to keep firm footing. A visit in Moscow, coincidentally just before the 1983 Washington conference, triggered a study series by Stenchikov and Carl that addressed a 'minimum' disturbance (without minimizing the problem), traced conditions for Southern Hemisphere impacts, and explored the transient response for hints to answer the 1975 NAS question on 'postnuclear' The most detailed results were due to Thomas Malone and co-workers...

Foreword to Behavioral Study Section

In the minds of some, bonobos compete with chimpanzees as the best nonhuman primate model of our species. Given that there can only be one best model, and that chimpanzees were known first, bonobos are at a disadvantage. Moreover, anthropologists seem heavily invested in the chimpanzee as a model for human social evolution. Chimpanzees show male bonding, intergroup warfare, proficient tool-use, power politics, hunting, and meat-eating. There is no shortage of similarities, albeit mostly on the male side, with our own species. Consequently, a coherent picture of human social evolution has arisen around the chimpanzee as close relative, one emphasizing meat, violence, and male superiority. This picture fit well with post World War II developments, led by Konrad Lorenz in Europe and Robert Ardrey in the United States (Lorenz 1963, Ardrey 1963). Understandably perhaps, emphasis was put on Homo sapiens as a mentally unbalanced predator endowed with vigorous aggressive instincts (Cartmill...

Methods driving the direction of science

The availability of radioisotopes, in particular phosphorus-32, carbon-14 and tritium after World War II made it possible to measure to uptake rates and turnover as well as nutrient concentrations. This caused a boom in studies of nutrient dynamics and productivity. Although measuring techniques for radioisotopes have become more sensitive and safer with time, the basic procedures of measuring

On Physis and Republican Theory

Thus, Realist theory is heir to the materialist tradition of republican theory, particularly in its application of technological change to questions of security (e.g., the development of nuclear weapons).18 Realists seek to explain politics as it is, and not as it ought to be, suggesting that there are fixed and empirically based laws that govern the political sphere. Conversely, the poverty of much critical or post-modern political theory emanates from its blatant omission of material-contextual factors, including demography, geography, energy, advances in technology, and the subject of this discourse, population health.19 Largely as a consequence of Weberian thought, political discourse in the late twentieth century exhibited the increasing dominance of the ideational over the

David D Celentano Frangiscos Sifakis Vivian Go and Wendy Davis

To illuminate the dynamics of the social ecology of STI, including HIV AIDS, this chapter reviews three fundamental sociocultural movements which have been linked to how and when individuals find sexual partners. First, we look at a series of social changes in the second half of the last century, and evaluate the impact they had on sexual behaviors and STI in the US. These include the growth in numbers of young Americans attending college and delaying marriage, the introduction of hormonal contraception, the movement of women into the workforce, the sexual liberation movement of the 1960s, and changes in the population distribution of Blacks in post-World War II America. The connection between these changes and prevalence rates of common STI is reviewed.

Postwar social and sexual trends evolution and revolution of sexual mores

Societal trends and innovations in the latter half of the twentieth century were associated with this shift in sexual attitudes and behaviors. The impact of these trends and innovations, which included a steep rise in the number of young Americans going to college, a growing number of women in the labor force, an increase in divorce rates, the invention of the contraceptive pill, and the Women's Liberation Movement, were magnified by the fact that the surge of individuals born after the end of World War II, the baby boomers, began their reproductive years in the 1960s and 1970s. These trends and innovations, and the changes in sexual behavior they encouraged, were in turn associated with new patterns of transmission rates of STI.

Population movements and STI segregation

Another broad social trend of the second half of the twentieth century had a unique influence on the transmission of STI in the Black population. During World War II, a need for labor for the production of war material encouraged a major migration of Blacks from the rural, agrarian South to factories in the North. In subsequent decades this migration intensified, with significant shifts in the demographics of large cities in the East and Mid-West - notably Chicago and Detroit. One consequence of this influx was an intensification of racial segregation. As the National Advisory Committee on Civil Disorders stated in their report to President Lyndon Johnson, Our nation is moving toward two societies, one Black, one White - separate and unequal (US National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 1968). Differences in socioeconomic status, political power, access to medical care, and preventive health services (LaVeist, 2002), along with racial differences in sexual partner preferences,...

Agricultural And Industrial Transformation Period

Forest product manufacturing in the United States declined from 1910 until after World War II, when a boom in the housing market sparked an increase in harvesting (Powell et al. 1993). Since then, production has increased (see Figure 4.1), resulting in historic levels of harvesting, but annual growth of hardwoods in the East still exceeds timber removals (e.g., by 80 in 1991). In the eastern United States, most (94 ) of the 380 million acres of forest land is timberland this proportion has been relatively constant since the early 1950s (Powell et al. 1993). About half of the eastern forest land is classified as oak-pine (32.2 mill. a.), oak-hickory (129.7 mill. a.), or oak-gum-cypress (29.2 mill. a.) forest type, and the largest areas of highly productive ( 120 cu. ft. per acre per year) forest lands occur in the oak-hickory and loblolly-shortleaf pine types. Most of the timberlands in the East are owned by private

Trends in sexual behavior

In post-World War II America, social norms prohibited sex outside of marriage (Heer and Grossbard-Schectman, 1981). The Kinsey studies (Kinsey et al., 1953, 2006) of the 1940s and 1950s, however, suggested that Americans were engaging in a wide range of sexual activities. Three of Kinsey's most surprising findings were the frequent use of prostitutes by married (10-20 percent) and unmarried (70 percent) men, the prevalence of homosexual activities (37 percent of males and 13 percent of females had had at least one homosexual experience

Sexual activity among adults

A consistent, comparable series of surveys of adults similar to those collected among adolescents does not exist in the US, making it more difficult to assess whether sexual behaviors of older American adults have changed in the post-World War II era. Catania and colleagues analyzed three national-level behavioral data sets collected at different points and found that sexual behaviors among heterosexual adults aged 18 to 49 were relatively constant from 1988 to 1996, whereas condom use increased significantly in the same time period (Catania et al., 2001). A study of sexual behaviors of a representative sample of Seattle residents comparing sexual behaviors in 1995 and 2004 also found little difference between time periods. At both measurement periods, the median number of lifetime sex partners and the proportion of participants having concurrent partnerships had changed little (Aral et al., 2005). Similarly, however, this study population also reported an increase in use of condoms....

Impact of the Antiinsecticide Movement

He illustrated this with many descriptions of how spraying houses with DDT reduced malaria infections and malarial deaths. He stated The power of exported death control can best be seen by an examination of the classic case of Ceylon's assault on malaria after World War II. In his descriptions of population density in India, he stated that the .problems of Delhi and Calcutta are our problems too. Americans have helped to create them we help to prevent their solution. Taken in context, the solution would be to stop spraying houses and to allow increasing malaria and, as a consequence, increasing malarial deaths. In his descriptions of population problems in Colombia, he states that Colombia is an extremely poor country .with a doubling time of 21 years. Death control did not reach Colombia until after World War II. Before it arrived, a woman could expect to have two or three children survive to reproductive age if she went through ten pregnancies. Now,...

From Ganesha to the present

The capture of elephants continued during the British period, albeit with different end uses. Elephants were still part of the army, but were not valued as transport for men and goods over hilly or wet terrain. The elephants' moment of glory in modern times came during World War II (1939-1945), when they were an indispensable part of military operations in Burma. The retreating British forces were heavily dependent on these skilled sappers to build bridges and to transport troops and supplies across the densely forested, hilly Burmese terrain, while the advancing Japanese also coveted these elephants for much the same reasons.

Is past and present household consumption sustainable

We concluded from the results of the HOMES and Greenhouse projects that household consumption in the Netherlands during the fifty-year period since the Second World War was not sustainable. We also concluded that the future demand for resources due to household consumption will exceed the sustainable supply of environmental resources assuming the simultaneous need for an acceptable level of environmental quality. By the latter we mean that meeting human needs may not result in undue harm to other species and their ecosystems. The ToolSust project only confirmed the findings. The conclusions were drawn for a variety of levels and household functions. The geographical levels ranged from single households in the Netherlands to cities in four European countries. The actor levels ranged from political (taxes, regulation), economic (product quality, prices) and spatial (spatial planning and infrastructure) to the sociocultural level (institution and social norms). Household functions...

Genetic Engineering and Society

Other risks exist in the uses of biotechnology. From the late nineteenth century until World War II, a school of thought called eugenics suggested that the methods of genetics should be turned to improving the human gene pool. This idea led to forced sterilization first, of various criminal populations, and eventually, of alcoholics and epileptics. The policies were used to restrict immigration of certain Asian and European populations that were termed genetically inferior. Eugenics had its ultimate expression when it provided the scientific basis for the racial policies of the Nazis before and during World War II. Where the capability exists, so will the temptation. Will parents seek to amplify the gene for human growth hormone in their offspring so that their children could become heftier football linemen or taller basketball players The ability to select the gender of one's offspring by amniocentesis and abortion is already causing problems in some cultures.

The welfare argument against consumption

In fact, consumerism4 only really became established during the post-Second World War period. Until then the finiteness of consumer wants and therefore the likelihood that productivity growth would result increasingly in leisure rather than consumption increases was largely taken for granted, and the Victorian and interwar periods saw the popularity, in many countries, of ideas about leisured utopia. At the same time there were fears on the part of the elite about what people would do with their free time. Increasingly there were other problems, such as selling an ever-growing volume of goods, largely unrelated to needs, and redistributing available work in the face of rising productivity and unemployment meanwhile the 1930s slump undermined the desire for free time. The 'solution' adopted was based on engineering increasing demand for consumer goods. Working hours were to be somewhat shorter, though still far longer than they need be, thus providing both the time and income required...

Bruce A Wilcox Duane J Gubler and HF Pizer

The twentieth century was a landmark in the history of mankind as a result of the widespread control and eradication of infectious diseases that historically had been the scourge of humans. The advent and effective use of new drugs, vaccines, insecticides, treatment and prevention strategies during and following World War II reinforced public health programs already in place, and provided the tools needed to bring many of the worst diseases under control. Smallpox was eradicated using a mass vaccination strategy. By the late 1960s, the war on infectious diseases was declared won by leading experts in the field and by the Surgeon General of the United States (Patlak, 1996). The second trend was the sharply increasing and unprecedented rate of human population growth following World War II that has continued for 60 years. Increasing human numbers have been a principal factor leading to uncontrolled

Dengue fever as a classic case study of the impact of urbanization

As noted above, by the late eighteenth century dengue viruses had a worldwide distribution in the tropics. Because the viruses were dependent on sailing vessels for geographic spread, however, epidemics were infrequent, often with periods of 10-40 years with no epidemic activity. Once a virus was introduced to a new region, however, it would move from country to country within that region at a much faster pace. This was the status of the disease at the beginning of World War II. In the years following World War II, an economic boom began in Asia that is continuing today. It was this dramatic economic development, combined with unprecedented population growth, that was the primary driving force of uncontrolled urbanization that has occurred in most Asian cities in the past 50 years. The influx of people, primarily from rural areas, led to rapid and uncontrolled urban growth. Forced to live in inadequate housing in areas where there was no water, sewage, electricity, or waste...

Pandemic Influenza On Sclerosis in Governance

The unprecedented ferocity of World War I (1914-1918) saw the great powers of Europe galvanize their populations into total war and the Continent besieged by violence, chaos, and destruction. Ultimately, the conflict resulted in the disintegration of several empires witness the centrifugal fragmentation of Austria-Hungary, the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, and the subjugation of Germany under the punitive Treaty of Versailles.1 The Great War, as it was also known, cut down a generation of young men in Europe and directly contributed to the emergence of a deadly influenza pandemic, known at the time as the Spanish Flu. The manifestations of pandemic influenza were horrific. Infected individuals exhibited heliotrope cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from suffocation as their lungs filled with blood and fluid. The end result for the host was often systemic hemorrhaging, and ultimately death. I begin this chapter by examining the impact of the 1918 pandemic on...

Richard C Falco Gary P Wormser and Thomas J Daniels

Since World War II, the massive expansion of suburbs has been the way that metropolitan areas grow. As suburbs were created, lawns and parks replaced forests and farms, and entire neighborhoods were built into woodlots. However, the exodus from the nation's older cities to previously unspoiled lands has come at a cost. The suburbs, with their typically wooded properties and increasing human population, have become an important environment for interaction between people and arthropod vectors, particularly ticks. In the United States, the emergence of Lyme disease provides the archetypal example ofjust such a process.

Deepscattering layers

Early studies of these diel vertical movements of plankton and other creatures were mainly confined to populations of shallow water, but during World War II it became apparent that this phenomenon is of very wide occurrence throughout the deep oceans. Physicists investigating the use of underwater echoes for the location of submarines obtained records during daylight hours of a sound-reflecting layer in the deep water beyond the continental shelf (Dietz, 1962 Farquhar, 1977). On echogram tracings this layer gave the appearance of a false bottom at about 300 m where the sea floor was known to be far below this. Towards the end of the day this sound-reflecting layer was observed to rise until close to the surface. During darkness it was less distinct, but at the dawn twilight the layer formed again near the surface, and descended gradually to its usual daylight level as the sun rose. Further detailed investigations revealed that there are sometimes several of these mid-water...

Human influence on deer and tick populations Suburbanization and landscape changes

Although suburbanization is largely regarded as a post-World War II phenomenon, it actually began much earlier. On the North American continent, Boston, Philadelphia, and New York City established suburbs well before the Revolutionary War, and suburbanization accelerated in the mid-1800s in Europe, the pace of suburbanization in London was nearly as rapid (Jackson, 1985). The popularity of suburbs in the United States grew in the twentieth century, beginning in the 1920s, and was most rapid from then through the 1950s (Staley, 1999). By the 1950s, however, the suburbs were growing at a median level of 30 percent faster than the cities they surrounded. The underlying cause was the introduction and popularity of the automobile, facilitated by huge federal outlays for highway construction. Before then, people had to live within walking distance of work or near a rail or streetcar line. They needed to live close to local schools, merchants, doctors, family, etc., and densely settled...

Population Age and Size

Expansion rates for saprotrophic basidiomycetes with non-unit-restricted growth is in the order of 0.3-1.5 m-1 year-1 (Hansen and Hamelin, 1999). To get a reliable measure of the expansion rate an independent measure of age is needed. This is hard to achieve from markers within the mycelium and has to be sought from known historical events. Normally the maximum age can be calculated but there are also a number of cases where minimum age has been inferred from forestry operations or construction of roads etc. For example, genets of Armillaria were estimated to be older than a road that crossed through its distribution (Kile, 1983 Lygis et al., 2005), and the age of H. annosum was dated from the onset of thinning operations in previously untouched stands (Bendz-Hellgren et al., 1999). Another possibility may be to use the spike in 14C from nuclear weapon trials date biological material to certain years (Levin and Kromer, 2004). This requires that mycelial structures are built during...

The Dematerialization Concept

This was confirmed in works of Larson, Ross and Williams (1986) who provided evidence of some earlier or pre-World War II downturns in materials IOU and of Clark and Flemings (1986) who demonstrated that technological processes cause fluctuations in the way in which materials are used. The implications of these insights are that levels of IOU change regularly for different materials and that cyclical swings in this index might be a better indicator of mineral industry adjustments than that of a declining trend. This view was also supported by Sterman (1985) who concluded from his systems dynamics research and analyses of IOU patterns that structural changes in the economy can be better described as following a cyclical rather than a declining trend pattern. Finally, Ayres and Ayres (1996) show how dematerialization can be better explained in terms of materials substitution and recycling strategies.

Analysis of the Soil CO2 Efflux As a Component

It follows from the earlier discussion that dating of the 'ecosystem age' of the CO2 flux is most interesting. Conventional 14C dating based on the radioactive decay of the isotope with a half-life of c. 5770 years offers no major possibilities in contexts where half of the soil respiration is root respiration of recent photosynthates (see before) and the other half is due to decay of recently deposited litter. However, nuclear weapons testing 1954 1962 provided a significant transient input of 14C to the atmosphere (e.g., Walton et al, 1970) andjenkinson and Rayner (1977) demonstrated that this could enable tracing of that C through the plant-soil system. The 14C levels are slowly approaching the so-called 'modern' pre-bomb 14C levels, and the method will become less and less useful as differences in 14C abundance between years diminish. However, today it is still a most powerful tool.

Environmental monitoring

The processing of uranium to increase the proportion of the fissionable form U-235 in relation to U-238, or to add plutonium P-239 to natural uranium, for use in nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons. Enriched uranium contains up to 3 U-235, as compared with 0.7 in natural uranium. See radioactive isotope.

Rethinking the Unthinkable

An unparalleled, open activity toward a worldwide process of research and education, which goes beyond the traditional understanding of scientific responsibility in terms of specialist's denial, the public action of the scientific elite, and the work in closed circles, was launched after delivery of the AMBIO study by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). Steered by the project ''Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War'' (ENUWAR) of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), resulted it by the end of 1985 in the two-volume report SCOPE-28. This study cannot offer an overall view on the complex entity 'eco-sphere' after nuclear war. None of the major physical control parameters (light, temperature, water) are expected to be disturbed that hard or weak at planetary scale so as to justify 'simple' conclusions. A substantial impact on the stratospheric ozone budget, however, maintained by the US National Research Council (NRC 1985), holds the more,...

Behind and Beyond the Scenarios

The idea of a 'doomsday machine' as an ultima ratio of deterrence is due to Herman Kahn. As a 'terminal' retaliation should deterrence fail, such a hypothetical device was thought to automatically kill the majority of mankind, if not the species of man or all life on Earth. MAD was a sort of 'homicide pact' indeed, settled by the Antiballistic Missile Treaty of 1972 (which allowed one BMD system at either side). Negotiations could give MAD a frame as long as it was accepted as a matter of fact and a relatively stable island was sought within the sea of inherent risks. In a severe crisis, however, a strategic exchange could have been initiated just by technical failure, misinterpretation, false information, or madness. Aimed to balance Soviet conventional forces, the US nuclear guarantee for Western Europe established the principal context of the doctrine of extended deterrence. The ability to control escalation, a prerequisite of this posture, was its dilemma as well. The myth, the...

Regional Conflicts and Their Global Effects

The theme is again put on the agenda by recent studies into the climatic effects of a potential regional nuclear conflict of 1.5 Mt 'size' in Southeast Asia, using the full atmosphere-ocean GCM with high vertical resolution of NASA's Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS), which has been successfully applied to study the climatic impact of volcanic eruptions. The GISS model shows extremely long smoke residence times, up to a decade, due to efficient lofting into the upper stratosphere, all year round in these latitudes. The surface air temperature drop is much less than in the 'nuclear winter' case, of course, but still considerable if compared with the climate record a global cooling from 1.25 to 0.5 K over a decade, with minima of several kelvin (degrees centigrade) over large areas of North America and Eurasia. A 10 weakening of the global precipitation is concentrated in the Tropics, but substantial (seasonal mean) reductions of the Asian subtropical summer monsoons are also...

Historical Review Of The Development Of Aquatic Toxicology

The concept of water quality criteria (WQC) was formulated shortly after World War II. McKee (1952)18 published a report entitled Water Quality Criteria that provided guidance on chemical concentrations not to be exceeded for the protection of aquatic life for the State of California. A second well-known edition by McKee and Wolf (1963)19 expanded the list of chemicals and the toxicity database. WQC are defined as the scientific data used to judge what limits of variation or alteration of water will not have an adverse effect on the use of water by man or aquatic organisms.1 An aquatic water quality criterion is usually referred to as a chemical concentration in water derived from a set of toxicity data (criteria) that should not be exceeded (often for a specified period of time) to protect aquatic life. Water quality standards are enforceable limits (concentration in water) not to be exceeded that are adopted by states and approved by the U. S. federal government. Water quality...

A brief history of improving blood safety

In 1937, Dr Bernard Fantus established the first blood bank in the United States at Cook County Hospital in Chicago. He is also credited with coining the term blood bank to describe a laboratory capable of preserving and storing blood. In just a few years, blood-banking spread across the United States and Europe. In 1940 the process of fractionation for breaking down plasma into albumin and gamma globulin was discovered, and these products soon were available for clinical use. World War II created an immediate demand for blood, and around this time the American Red Cross started using the vacuum bottle to collect and store donated blood. Whole blood donations were tested for ABO and Rh type, as well as syphilis. Meanwhile, the United States Government set up a nationwide program for collecting blood, and the Plasma for Britain program to aid the British war effort. During the war, albumin was used to treat shock, the Coombs test was discovered, and acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution...

Dengue Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

Dengue is an old disease the principal urban vector, Aedes aegypti, and the viruses were spread around the world as commerce and the shipping industry expanded in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Major epidemics of DF occurred as port cities were urbanized and became infested with Ae. aegypti. Because the viruses depended on the shipping industry for spread, however, epidemics in different geographic regions were sporadic, occurring at 10-40-year intervals. The disease pattern changed with the ecological disruption in Southeast Asia during and after World War II. The economic development, population growth and uncontrolled urbanization in the post-war years created ideal conditions for increased transmission and spread of urban mosquito-borne diseases, initiating a global pandemic of dengue. With increased epidemic transmission, and the movement of people within and between countries, hyperendemicity (the co-circulation of multiple DENV serotypes) developed in Southeast Asian...

Highrisk human behavior

On 13 May 1981, John Paul II was shot and critically wounded in an assassination attempt. During the five-hour surgical procedure at a Rome hospital to repair his wounds, the Pope was given six pints of blood. On 20 June 1981, he was hospitalized with a high fever and inflammation of the right lung. The Pope was tested and found to be infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpes-type virus that can be transmitted by sexual contact and blood transfusion. He had acquired CMV from the blood administered during surgery. At the time, neither Italian law nor standard medical practice required the transfused units to be tested for CMV (Catholic News Service, 2005). A number of years later, filtering the white blood cells' blood components came into common use, which reduces the risk of CMV from transfusion. Pope John Paul's experience illustrates the link between human behavior and transfusion risk. There are a number of infectious agents associated with human high-risk sexual behavior and...

Abnormal Microbial Infection

Indeed, within the past millennia, microbial disease has proven to be a formidable adversary, one that has the potential to decimate the human population if left unchecked. During the Middle Ages and extending into the nineteenth century, diseases such as bubonic plague, cholera, and typhoid swept through Europe, causing massive mortality. The influenza pandemic at the end of World War I, for example, killed more people than the war itself.

Why Has There Been Such a Dramatic Resurgence of Vector Borne Diseases

Multiple virus serotypes co-circulating, as a result of World War II. The rest of the tropical world was hypoendemic with only a single DENV serotype circulating, or nonendemic (Fig. 11a). In 2007, the whole of the tropical world is hyperendemic as a direct result of urbanization, lack of mosquito control, and increased movement of viruses in people via modern transportation (Fig. 11b). The result has been increased frequency of larger epidemics, and the emergence of the severe and fatal form of disease, DHF, in most tropical areas of the world. Globalizaton and modern transportation were also responsible for the recent spread of WNV to and throughout the western hemisphere (Fig. 6). Increased transmission is a major driver of genetic change in all of these viruses, which can result in virus strains with greater virulence or epidemic potential being spread around the globe. The concern is that YF or RVF will be the next vector-borne diseases to spread because of globalization and...

Rates of Deforestation

Tropical deforestation was a concern to colonial powers in the 19th century, because of their reliance on the forests of their colonies to supply timber for building naval vessels. For example, British Colonial Foresters became concerned with the lack of regeneration of teak forests in Burma (now Myanmar) and initiated a reforestation program in the mid-1800s (Takeda 1992). However, global concern over tropical deforestation did not begin until the mid-20th century. Following World War II, logging increased in intensity and scale, and population pressures in tropical countries resulted in the clearing of tropical forests for agriculture. By the 1960s, scientists began to recognize that the disappearance of tropical forests represented an important loss of global resources, and in the 1970s and 1980s began to determine the area of tropical forests worldwide and the rate at which they were disappearing (Table 4.1).

Producing markets the global agrochemical industry

The establishment and expansion of large-scale pesticide and fertilizer development and manufacturing is a product of military technology and processing power developed during World War II. The fight against typhus and malaria on the front, coupled with the search by chemists for chemical warfare agents, led to the discovery and the development of DDT (in 1939), the discovery of the herbicidal properties of 2,4-D and MCPA (in 1944), and the first organic weed killers based on the regulation of plant hormones (Whitten 1966 Aldus 1976 Anderson et al. 2003). Under the direction of research and development by the Chemical Warfare Service of the US military, pesticide production blossomed and proved to be effective and economically efficient. As historian Edmund Russell notes (2001 149) the finances of making DDT could not be beat , especially since government tax amortization was dispensed to chemical producers as the war neared its end.

Butyric Acid Fermentation

Butyric acid fermentation is characteristic of several obligate anaerobic bacteria that mainly belong to the genus Clostridium by means of glycolysis, these are able to oxidize sugar, and occasionally amylose and pectin, to pyruvate. Pyruvate is in turn oxidized to acetylCoA by the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase enzyme system, with the production of CO2 and H2. Part of the acetylCoA is converted into acetic acid, with ATP production. The other part generates acetoacetylCoA, which is reduced to butyrylCoA through the production of -oxybutyrylCoA and crotonylCoA. The transformation of butyrylCoA into butyrate leads to further ATP production. Thus, this fermentation process produces a relatively high yield of energy, with 3 mol of ATP for each mole of glucose. Small amounts of ethanol and isopropanol can also be produced (Figure 7). Butyric fermentation is quite common in silage when the pH is not low enough to ensure the exclusive activity of lactic acid bacteria. The carbon dioxide...

Immunity and Vaccination

One of the greatest successes of vaccination has been with smallpox. This once devastating disease killed millions in the Old World and scarred countless others. It was then brought to the New World, where it killed millions of Native Americans, in some cases wiping out entire cultures. In fact, the infection was spread intentionally to some tribes by European invaders who distributed infected blankets (an early example of biological warfare). Vaccination with material from the pustules (pox) of victims was practiced in Asia for at least several centuries, but sometimes lead to serious infection. In 1798, Edward Jenner reported on his experiments and observations in England involving cowpox, a related but mild disease of cows and milkmaids. He developed a vaccine based on this virus that provided immunity to smallpox. Vaccination was so successful that by 1966, the World Health Organization undertook a program to eradicate smallpox worldwide. In part because humans are the only known...

Development and deforestation in the Philippines Westoby 1962 Jordan 1995 b Juan Pulhin cited in Stone and DAndrea 2001

Stone and D'Andrea (2001) chronicled the impact of such development on the upland forests of Mindanao, and on the indigenous Lumads who occupied these forests. For centuries, the Lumads lived on the upper slopes of Mindanao in Bukidnon province, in relative isolation. Following World War II, the population of the Philippines exploded, and after the best agricultural soils in the lowlands were occupied, migrants from other islands began moving into Bukidnon. The Lumads fled to more remote areas, because they had no land rights. However, the law of the land allocated these undocumented lands to the public domain. The Lumads were considered squatters, and had to move on when a number of foreign logging companies began operating in the province. By the mid 1970s, these companies, and the national ones that eventually replaced them, had stripped Bukid-non of its timber. The companies then moved on to new territories. The number of forest licenses issued to timber companies and the number...

Material Flows From Foreign Trade

The second part of society's industrial metabolism stems from the interaction with other economies. In the UK case, not surprisingly, fossil fuels are also the main component of imports and exports. Imports of fossil fuels became relevant after World War II and reached a peak during 1970-74, when around 130 million tons (mainly crude oil) were imported yearly. Up to this point, fossil fuels also made a dominant contribution to the UK exports, mainly as coal. This changed with the start of the North Sea gas and oil industry. Since around 1975, imports of fossil fuels have decreased considerably while exports have exploded. If we look at the foreign trade with fossil fuels from the perspective of a

Practical Applications of Applied Human Ecology

Human ecology can also assist community and regional planning. For example, the Phoenix, Arizona (USA) metropolitan region is well known for its rapid growth and its suburban sprawl. Much of the post-World War II development has occurred in a similar pattern of low-density, single-family homes that is highly dependent on the automobile.

Vaccination and public health programs

During the same period, vaccine research and development was expanding worldwide, as evidenced by the sometimes competing work of Pasteur in France Daniel Elmer Salmon and Theobald Smith on heat-killed vaccines for the US Department Agriculture Henri Toussaint on anthrax Richard Pfeiffer and Wilhelm Kolle in Germany and Almroth Wright in England on typhoid vaccines Alexandre Yersin, Albert Calmette and Amedee Borelle on a plague vaccine for animals and Waldemar Haffkine in India on a vaccine against human plague (Plotkin and Orenstein, 2004). Along with the immunobiologic discoveries that led to vaccine development, these research efforts also led to the development of epidemiologic methods to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new vaccines. Haffkine is credited with attempting to conduct the first controlled field trials with his cholera vaccine trials in the 1890s in India. However, the birth of the modern rigorous, controlled, large-scale field trial is considered to be the...

Scientific advances vaccine research and modern vaccine development

After World War II, more than two dozen new vaccines were developed. Referred to as the golden age of vaccine development, the second half of the twentieth century was a period of great achievement in the field of immunization. Key to this success was the introduction of cell-culture techniques that made it possible to grow and propagate human viruses in a laboratory with relative ease, for which John Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Robbins received the Nobel prize in 1954 (Smith, 1990 Plotkin and Orenstein, 2004). Other important advances included the development of vaccines to bacterial proteins and polysaccharides, the creation of conjugate vaccines, and, more recently, advances in genomics that have led to the development of recombinant vaccines (Wilson and Marcuse, 2001 Plotkin and Orenstein, 2004).

Theoretical Ramifications

Thus, another long-term repercussion of the BSE scare, particularly in Europe, is the lingering mistrust of expert opinion in general, and of genetically modified foods in particular. Expert assurances, Robert Paarlberg argues, are discounted by European consumers, distrustful since the 1996 'mad cow disease' scare. That crisis undermined consumer trust in expert opinion after UK public health officials gave consumers what proved to be a false assurance that there was no danger in eating beef from diseased animals. Although mad cow disease had nothing to do with the genetic modification of food, it generated new anxieties about food safety 69 as GM products were being introduced to the EU market. Thus, the BSE epizootic is associated with negative effects on public perceptions of the legitimacy of epistemic communities, as the scientific community became perceived as either incompetent, or as corrupt and beholden to the private sector. This decline in...

Andrew W Artenstein and Troy Martin

The use of biological (and chemical) agents as weapons of war has been well documented (Christopher et al., 1997). The German biological warfare program during World War I included covert infections of Allied livestock with anthrax and glanders. The Japanese army began conducting experiments on the effects of bacterial agents of biowarfare on Chinese prisoners in occupied Manchuria in 1932 at their infamous Unit 731 thousands of individuals were killed as a result of these experiments, which continued until 1945 (Harris, 1994). The United

Building consensus around promises of development

A second element for building public consensus for the dam project that was as important as the threat fabricated around a natural crisis was the political promise given to the construction industry and to the local community for major capital investment and economic growth that the project would bring. Since the end of World War II, state

Ordinary resistance and daily life

We have seen that henceforth, daily life is the scene we need to observe. In our daily lives, mercantile consumption is of central importance. The economic transformations that have occurred in industrialized countries since the end of the Second World War went in the direction of an industrialization of consumption on the example of the work rationalization process that unfolded through the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. I use the expression 'industrialization' not so much in the sense of the advent of mass consumption as a way to compare systematization and rationalization of daily techniques to similar processes that happened in the field of work and production during the previous period. It is also during the postwar period that the semantic shift from 'housewife' to 'consumer', a less feminine expression (so valorized), has occurred, thus confirming the new importance the consumer actor was to acquire in the economic universe. The history of consumption...

Lightweight Straw Loam

Building with straw bales was very popular in the USA until after the Second World War. They were used for everything from schools to aircraft hangars. In the early 1980s, a 75-year-old school built of straw was demolished in Nebraska, and the straw was undamaged and fresh enough to be used as cow fodder. Such relatively unexpected experiences have led to a renaissance of straw bale building in Canada, USA and Europe (Figures14.20and14.21).

The Sanitary Landfill As An Ecosystem

The conventional engineering aspects of landfills are well developed (Bagchi, 1990) and are the result of a long design history. Landfills evolved from dumps where solid waste is left in the open on the surface of the ground. Solid waste is buried in trenches or depressions of the landfill and covered every day with at least 15 cm (6 in.) of clean dirt. The daily covering is done to exclude pests and to prevent the outbreak of fires. The practice of landfilling began in the early 1900s, but it became commonplace after World War II. From the beginning, landfills were

Ecological effects of trawling

Increased and use of tickler chains (mounted on the bottom rope to disturb bottom-living fish upwards and into the trawl net) were of great concern, although studies done in the 1970s to allay the fears of fishermen did not find long-term effects on macrobenthos (Jones 1992). At the end of World War II the otter trawl was developed and its use became widespread. This and the beam trawl (see Fig. 8.4) were (and still are) the types of gear most widely used to fish the seabed. A further gear that is widely used and can be severely damaging is the scallop dredge, a rectangular metal box to which a metal-mesh bag is fixed. As an example of the change in technology, Jones (1992) reports that whereas the average weight of a beam trawl in the 1960s was 3.5 t, by 1980 the average weight was over 10 t. Yet it was the tickler chains that were thought to be most damaging aspects of the gear. The French Institut Scientifique et Techniques des Peches Maritimes made studies around Corsica and...

Case Study in Early Management The New York City Sewerage System

From the time of the Commission's release of its final report in 1914, until actual construction of a new sewerage system began in New York City, nearly thirtyyears had expired. The delays in implementation can be linked to poor regional cooperation, a lack of protection standards, the aftermath of the First World War, changing social issues, funding limitations, and political indifference. None of the policy strategies recommended by the Com

Prey Predator System

It is clear that if the fishing effort e decreases, the equilibrium concentration of prey population will decrease and the equilibrium concentration of predator population will increase. This counterintuitive conclusion is known as the Volterra principle. The principle explained why when fishing in the Adriatic Sea ceased during World War I, the concentration of prey decreased and the concentration of predators (such as sharks) increased.

Nuclear membrane See nucleus

Nuclear winter The significant cooling of the global climate suggested to be a possible consequence of nuclear war, due to the resulting high-altitude dust clouds caused by the nuclear explosions and the burning of forests, fossil fuels, and plastics set alight by firestorms triggered by exploding nuclear warheads. Such a large accumulation of dust would block sunlight for weeks afterward, perhaps reducing surface temperatures by as much as 22 C (40 F). The low temperatures, frosts, and dim light, as well as the radioactive fallout, would destroy plant and animals life.

Oaks Hickories and their Deciduous

Figure 4.2 Osage-orange, the bois d'arc tree. Squirrels, deer, and birds eat the seeds after the compound fruit has fallen to the ground and the hard coat softened by fermentation. Natural stands arise from these seeds. As recently as World War II, a dye was extracted from the wood for khaki uniforms. Apples (inset) provided ballast on return trips for boats plying the Red River. Later these apples were replaced with goods for shipment, the unloaded fruit providing seeds for living fences far distant from the original narrow range of the species in north-central Texas. The very hard and durable wood, from trees bearing thorns so tough that they puncture truck tires, is harvested throughout the East for specialty products. (USDA Forest Service photo) Figure 4.2 Osage-orange, the bois d'arc tree. Squirrels, deer, and birds eat the seeds after the compound fruit has fallen to the ground and the hard coat softened by fermentation. Natural stands arise from these seeds. As recently as...

The overfishing problem

Shortly afterwards the landings of fish from the seas around north-west Europe increased to an extent that Huxley could not have envisaged. Sailing vessels were superseded by ships with powerful steam engines, enabling the use of much larger nets and the replacement of the old beam trawl by the far more effective otter trawl, and giving fishermen a new independence of wind and tide so that they could fish longer and more often. Within 30 years of Huxley's pronouncement there was already evidence of reduction of stocks of certain favourite demersal species such as cod, haddock and plaice on the more intensively fished areas of the north-east Atlantic. Between the two World Wars the decline became more apparent, and in 1942 E.S. Russell wrote Since World War II the catching power of fishing vessels has been further augmented by several innovations. The change from steam to diesel power has raised the power and speed of ships. The development of nets made of stronger, lighter and...

War as a Disease Amplifier

Of the various factors that amplify disease, this particular relationship is doubtless the least understood, and it requires the development of a robust theoretical construct of probable paths of causality. The intellectual soil has not remained utterly fallow, as historians have noted this relationship for centuries, and yet such issues remain relatively unexplored within the domain of political science. This chapter explores both historical sources, and the current available empirical data, in order to develop and refine a series of testable hypotheses to inform future work in this neglected area. To empirically establish this relationship I analyze previously unpublished data from the German and Austrian archives regarding the effects of World War I on disease-induced morbidity and mortality.

The EU environmental policy

Brower's passion for nature began early, before he fought In Italy during World War II with the storied 10th Mountain Division, a special combat unit of the Army trained to flight on skis. That experience, however, solidified his affinity for the mountains, and when he came home he became an activist. Before rock climbing became popular, Brower made 70 first ascents In his beloved Sierra Nevadas. Reverence for the natural world has often led Brower to take controversial positions - some viewed as antihuman. He maintains, for example, that there are simply too many people on the planet, living In the wrong places, crowding out other species and depleting limited resources. As a result, he's also staked out a tough stand against high levels of immigration, saying the flood of people into the Southwest is putting too much pressure on stressed ecosystems. It's led to charges of racism and intolerance. But many people who know Brower refute those allegations. Those who try to diminish his...

The scarcity of nutrients in the oceans the iron story

Common being chloride and sodium, followed by sulphate, magnesium, and calcium. In addition, there is a long list of less common 'salts', which include many of the key nutrients for plankton, such as phosphate, nitrate, and iron. The main source of marine salts is the weathering of rocks on land and the subsequent addition of chemicals released from these rocks to the sea via rivers or wind-blown dust, along with some nutrients from hydrothermal vents.30 All of these chemicals are at low concentrations in seawater and this has made them difficult to study in the past. Indeed, it was not until after the First World War that accurate methods for measuring the phosphate and nitrogen components (nitrite, nitrate, ammonium) were devised, mainly by William Atkins, Hildebrand Harvey, and Leslie Cooper, working in Plymouth on the south coast of England. They were able to show that these nutrients were in such short supply that they limited the production of phytoplankton, which in turn...

Mechanisms and Institutions

As for the first question, fire has been a key amplification mechanism of human action since prehistorical times. Clearly, the burning of fossil fuels with the resulting emission of greenhouse gases is a related mechanism today. Vernadsky was particularly impressed by an amplification mechanism that was developed during his lifetime. The human capability to think had led to an understanding of subatomic processes that enabled human beings to build atomic bombs as well as to generate electricity from nuclear power plants. Vernadsky had studied radioactive materials already before World War I during World War II he played a key role in triggering the nuclear weapons program under Stalin, and he forcefully supported the Soviet nuclear energy program. It is noteworthy that Lovelock, champion of the Gaia concept, strongly advocates nuclear power as the way to meet the challenge of anthropogenic climate change.

The Argument and Its Limits in Brief

Even as late as the Second World War, malaria proved an important factor in campaigns in southeast Asia and the South Pacific, despite the best efforts of military doctors in the Japanese, British, and American armies. But in this case it was not systematically partisan, as all of these armies suffered severely from it because their manpower was mainly recruited from zones that did not provide soldiers with experience of and resistance to malaria.

Exotics As A Form Of Biodiversity

The process of exotics' adding biodiversity to communities is much less studied and discussed than their role in causing biodiversity declines. Of course, exotics are biological species as are natives, and they are as intrinsically interesting and valuable as any species taken within an appropriate context. When an exotic invades a community, its addition represents an increase in the community's biodiversity. At least in some cases this process can greatly increase diversity. This phenomenon is especially characteristic of islands which naturally have few species due to dispersal limitations (see the discussion of the theory of island biogeography in Chapters 4 and 5). Fosberg (1987) cites a dramatic example of this situation for an isolated island (Johnson Island) in the central Pacific Ocean. When first visited by a botanist there were only three species of vascular plants on the island. The island became occupied by humans as a military base during World War II, and by 1973 the...

Moving beyond simple synchrony Reinvasion waves and phase relationships

The statistical power of Cliff and Haggett's studies was limited by the relatively short length of their time series their four-year observation window covered just two major measles outbreaks. Grenfell and co-workers' longer time series (Grenfell et al., 2001) gave them more statistical power, but required an analysis that can cope with temporal changes in the dynamics of incidence, i.e., nonstationarity of the time series. Traditional linear techniques, such as autocorrelation or Fourier spectra, assume stationarity of time series. Measles dynamics, however, exhibit significant dynamical changes over time, such as changes in the oscillation period in response to variations in birth rate or level of vaccination (Earn et al., 2000). In such situations, wavelet analysis (Torrence and Compo, 1998 Grenfell et al., 2001) provides a useful tool. In common with Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis is a decomposition approach, but, instead of representing the data in terms of a collection of...

Control Of Exotic Species And Its Implications

FIGURE 7.6 Succession of pest control paradigms that started after World War II with chemical pesticides. FIGURE 7.6 Succession of pest control paradigms that started after World War II with chemical pesticides. Foundations of exotic control rest on the long history of pest control, especially in agriculture and forestry in terms of diseases, weeds, and insects. A tremendous amount of knowledge has accumulated on the subject over a long history. However, modern pest management essentially dates from after World War II when agricultural production and pesticide use expanded greatly. A succession of paradigms has emerged (Figure 7.6) but pest problems continue to accelerate. The consensus is that eradication is often impossible, and even control is difficult. At best some form of management is the most reasonable goal (National Research Council NRC , 1996b). The primary tools for controlling many exotic species are still chemical pesticides, which have positive and negative aspects...

Chief routes of entry of marine pollutants

Coastal towns and cities discharge raw or treated sewage into coastal waters. Tipping at sea is used to dispose of sewage sludge, industrial wastes, dredged materials, ocean incineration wastes, oil platform wastes and rubbish (the latter particularly in undeveloped countries). Ships dispose of many of their day-to-day wastes (including oil tanker washings) by dumping, often illegally. The recent (1995) appearance of dangerous phosphorus bombs on Scottish beaches is thought to be the result of poorly controlled military dumping after World War II.

Read and answer the following questions

After World War II the field of conservation expanded as new problems arose and as some older approaches became inadequate. The population had grown and pressures on land and resources had increased. So it was impossible to take into account only a single factor or a few factors when planning the use of land and resources. For example, in some countries where the insecticide DDT was used to control malaria-bearing mosquitoes, the disease was reduced to a low level. Similarly, agricultural pests were drastically reduced and crop yields soared in many regions. Eventually however, it was discovered that the pesticides had unexpected and severe consequences on the environment, and by the 1970s there use anywhere for any purpose was open to serious debate. In 1972 DDT was banned. After World War II all forms of pollution became a matter of serious significance because populations and industrial activities increased. Air in major cities became toxic, water supplies were contaminated....

Environmental Risk Humans

See also Adsorption Atmospheric Deposition Bioaccumulation Bioavailability Ecological Risk Assessment Ecotoxicology The Focal Topics Ecotoxicology The History and Present Directions Environmental and Biospheric Impacts of Nuclear War Environmental Impact Assessment and Application - Part 1 Environmental Impact Assessment and Application - Part 2 Exposure and Exposure Assessment Mutagenesis Physical Transport Processes in Ecology Advection, Diffusion, and Dispersion Radioactivity Radionuclides Their Biogeochemical Cycles and the Impacts on the Biosphere Risk Management Safety Factor Sediments Setting, Transport, Mineralization, and Modeling Transport in Porous Media Transport over Membranes Uranium.

Lowland Polish forest

Eastern Europe is renowned for its old forests, a number of which may well be primary, that is, they extend back to the last glaciation. Arguably the best-preserved lowland deciduous forest is that of Bialowieza (pronounced Bee-ow-a-vey-sha) covering 1300 km2 across the borders of Poland and Belarus. Humans have been in the forest since at least the fourteenth century, using it as a royal hunting forest from the fifteenth century but it appears to have been little altered until large-scale timber extraction began after World War I. Fortunately, in 1921, the Bialowiez a National Park was established in Poland to create a 47 km2 preserve with no further timber extraction or forestry management. What is left is a woodland described by Peterken (1996, p. 73) as 'the largest virgin old-growth stand in lowland Europe' with a full complement oflarge mammals such as deer, bison, wild boar and wolves, and high species richness (see Packham et al., 1992). This has undoubtedly been there for...

On Mortality from CoInfection

World War I saw the infection of German and Austrian populations by influenza, which then opened the way for subsequent epidemics of pneumonia and tuberculosis. This makes any such strict accounting of influenza-induced mortality rather problematic, in that the secondary effects of the pandemic persisted for some time. This reinforces the position taken by the political scientist Hazem Ghobarah et al. that the public health costs of wars (and complex emergencies) are likely complex, attenuated, and difficult to estimate.

Contaminants as Tracers The Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Besides using radioactive isotopes which are intentionally introduced to study ecological processes, such studies can also be conducted using radioactive environmental contaminants which are released following nuclear weapons detonations or nuclear industrial accidents. In this sense habitats which have received contaminant input can become important sites for studying the structure and function of ecological processes. In some cases, if they can be protected from public access, such sites may be more valuable if protected and left alone for research, thus avoiding expensive and often highly disruptive cleanup operations which may, in some circumstances, be more harmful to resident plant and animal communities than the contamination itself.

The Rise Fall and Future Needs for Radioecology

Radioecology was born and had its heyday during the 1950s and early 1960s as a result of societal concerns for health issues following the atmospheric testing or actual use of nuclear weapons during warfare. As travel to outer space began to attract increasing interest, studies of basic ecological processes and the production of agricultural products under levels of high background radiation also became popular. With the emergence of increased environmental concerns following Earth Day in the early 1970s however, nuclear weapons test ban treaties and a widespread societal rejection of nuclear power plants in the Western world decreased interest in and support for radioecology. Teaching and research in radioecology were thus greatly diminished in the United States through the 1970s and early 1980s. In April 1986, the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine however resulted in a resurgence of interest in radioecological studies, particularly in Europe where nuclear...

Underground Water Transport Processes

Radionuclide behavior in the aquatic environment is determined by transport of the liquid and solid phases as well as the chemical interactions between phases and their biological cycling. Once the radioactive debris released by a nuclear weapons test or from a nuclear power plant accident in the atmosphere enters the terrestrial ecosystem, the debris can infiltrate into the deep soil layer to contaminate the groundwater in the aquatic ecosystem. Various radio-nuclides, whether they are naturally or non-naturally made or leaked from a nuclear reactor, that have appeared in the groundwater have been of most concern. Mobility of radionuclides in the groundwater involves several processes precipitation, dissolution, adsorption, desorption, and ion exchange. Propagation of a radioactive plume through groundwater is a dynamic event in which all of these processes may occur simultaneously.

Biogeochemical Cycles of Long Lived Radionuclides

The radioactive debris injected into the stratosphere from nuclear weapons tests takes years to deposit, during which time the shorter-lived radionuclides largely disappear through substantially radioactive decay and gravitational settling, whereas the longer-lived radionuclides (such as 90Sr (strontium-90, t1 2 28.8 years), 137Cs (cesium-137, t1 2 30 years), and the plutonium isotopes 238Pu (t1 2 87.7 years), 239Pu (t1 2 2.4 x 104 years), and 240Pu (t1 2 6.6 x 103 years)) remain in the atmosphere. The study oflong-lived radionuclides has yielded useful information for understanding global biogeochemical cycling and various physical, chemical, and biological processes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 137Cs and Pu isotopes are chemically reactive, and Sr is less reactive. Generally, 90Sr migrates more rapidly than 137Cs in the soil layer. In other words, in the soil Sr is more mobile than 137Cs, which is strongly adsorbed on clay and is essentially nonexchangeable. But the...

Radioecological Effects of Radionuclides after the Chernobyl Accident

The presence of radioactivity in the environment has been indirectly affected by nuclear weapons tests, but significant accidents from nuclear reactor plants, such as at Three Mile Island in the United States in 1979 and at Chernobyl in Ukraine in 1986, can also greatly increase radioactivity in the atmosphere. The Chernobyl accident is the most serious to have occurred in the history of nuclear reactor operation. The Chernobyl accident occurred at 01 23 48 hours local time on 26 April 1986 at Unit No. 4 of the plant. The reactor continued to burn for several days. After about 10 days, the fire was effectively smothered by the large quantities of sand and other materials dropped on the reactor. Various radionuclides The accident has produced new data for us to examine the processes in detail. For example, the soil samples collected in 1993 at Pogonnoe, Belarus, a location 20 km north of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, have been used for measuring the chemical properties of...

Summary and Conclusions

In conclusion, the health effects that have resulted from exposures received as a result of nuclear weapons tests include thyroid disease exposed to 131I (iodine-131, t1 2 8 days) which concentrates in the thyroid gland as well as leukemia and solid cancers from low-dose rates of external and internal exposure. An obvious example is the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan more than 60 years ago. The bombings were tragic experiences for the cities and for many survivors who sustained severe radiation exposures and injuries from the blasted air shock waves. Radiation-associated deaths

Landuse and climatechange interactions

Since World War II, agricultural land uses have intensified in much of North America and Western Europe (Freemark and Boutin, 1995 Benton et al., 2002). To increase yields, agriculture now relies relatively heavily on massive pesticide and fertilizer use, mechanization, and irrigation, leading to the widespread loss and degradation of field boundary features (Freemark and Boutin, 1995 Longley and Sotherton, 1997). The ecological outcome has been the simplification of agricultural systems, a reduction of natural enemy diversity (Freemark and Boutin, 1995 Wilby and Thomas, 2002), the loss of natural habitat (Burel et al., 1998 Benton et al., 2002), the fragmentation of landscapes, and the degradation of remaining habitats (Burel et al., 1998). The net result of agricultural development is a reduction in the capacity of the environment to support biodiversity (Gaston et al., 2003).

Exploitation of otters

In Europe, except in Russia and other eastern countries, trapping of Eurasian otters for their fur has virtually ceased, but up to the Second World War there was a substantial market for otter skins, as now in North America. The species is frequently trapped in Russia and in Asian countries, however. In the international fur trade more than half of all otter skins are bought by Russia, China, Korea and Japan. In a recent case of illicit trade in otter skins between India and Nepal, 665 otter skins (probably all or mostly smooth otter, originating in India) were impounded

On Emergence and Non Linear Change

At the international level, the punctuated-equilibrium model is equally salient. The case studies illustrate that the 1918 influenza affected the balance of capabilities between the various protagonists in World War I. Further, contagion combined with war to generate stresses that contributed to the rapid demise of empires (German, Austrian, and Ottoman) in the fall of 1918. Thus, pandemic influenza altered the structure and trajectory of international relations in Europe in the decades that followed. Moreover, SARS resulted in the rapid (if ephemeral) empowerment of the World Health Organization relative to its sovereign member states, and BSE resulted in the rapid and permanent reform of various institutions within the construct of the European Union. Finally, the HIV AIDS pandemic has resulted in the formation of a new division within the UN superstructure (UNAIDS) and has fomented the creation of a multilateral institution (the Global Fund for HIV, Tuberculosis and Malaria).

Management of Crop Forest and Urban Pests

Traditional views of herbivorous and detritivorous insects as destructive, or at least nuisances, and ecological communities as nonintegrated, random assemblages of species supported harsh control measures. Early approaches to insect control included arsenicals, although much classic research on population regulation by predators and parasites also occurred prior to World War II. With the advent of broad-spectrum, long-lived, chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophos-phates, developed as nerve toxins and used for control of disease vectors in combat zones during World War II, management of insects seemed assured. However, reliance on these insecticides exposed many target species to intense selection over successive generations and led to rapid development of resistant populations of many species (Soderlund and Bloomquist 1990). Concurrently, movement of the toxins through food webs resulted in adverse environmental consequences that became widely known in the 1960s through publication...

Sources Of Radioactivity In The Environment

Radioactivity in the environment comes from natural and man-made sources (Figure 11.22.1). Although natural radioactivity is the most likely to be encountered in the environment due to its widespread dispersal, man-made radioactivity poses the greatest environmental risk. Natural radioactivity harnessed by man and not properly disposed of is also a potential threat to the environment. There are five basic sources of radioactivity in the environment the nuclear fuel cycle, mining activities, medical and laboratory facilities, nuclear weapons testing and seepage from natural deposits.

Highlevel Radioactive Waste

High-level radioactive waste consists of spent fuel elements from nuclear reactors, waste produced from reprocessing, and waste generated from the manufacture of nuclear weapons. All these wastes are highly regulated and controlled due to the dangerously high levels of radiation and the security issues caused by their plutonium content. Strict licensing requirements for the storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are specified in 10 CFR Part 72.

The Spruceless Belt In Central Europe

Following World War I, a map of Picea abies distribution in the Polish Kingdom compiled by LASPEYRES was published (PAX 1918). Areas lacking spruce forests on the Masovian Lowland between the central European montane and northeastern European lowland portions of the species range were shown for the first time. Three years later RIVOLI (1921) depicted the distribution of Norway spruce stands in central and northern Europe and distinguished four range limits as follows 1) the northern, polar limit 2) the southern boundary of the northern, lowland portion of the species range 3) the lower limit of the central European mountain ranges and 4) the upper altitudinal limit in the central European mountain ranges.

Estimating the Time of Sediment Deposition

The depth distribution of 137Cs in sediment cores provides information on the timing of sediment deposition. The sources of 137Cs to the Hudson River Basin include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, liquid releases from Indian Point Nuclear Power Generating Facility (IPNPGF) on the lower Hudson River, andliquid releases from Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) on the Mohawk River. For dating purpose, the utility of137Cs comes from the fact that it is relatively easy to measure and that all of these sources have been monitored over the last several decades.

Territorial Ecological Networks

Estonia Ecological Network

Adapted from Kiemstedt H (1994) Landscape Planning Contents and Procedures, 124pp. Bonn Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety, the Federal Minister of Environment. Adapted from Kiemstedt H (1994) Landscape Planning Contents and Procedures, 124pp. Bonn Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety, the Federal Minister of Environment.

Rainforest distribution and vulnerability

European Rain Microorganism

Information about the status of British mammals collected by members of the Mammal Society shows just what is needed not only in Britain, but in many other places, if we are to make informed judgements about forest policy in relation to the animals present. An increase in badgers Meles meles in Britain to a quarter of a million has been accompanied by many deaths through road accidents. Increases in otter Lutra lutra numbers have been accompanied by losses of the alien mink, though not necessarily caused by them. Even so the range and numbers of otter in the UK are considerably less than 50 years ago. The very large increase in the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus population to some 40 million is bad news for both farmers and foresters due to their incessant grazing and browsing. The rise in polecat Mustela putorius numbers since World War II is attributed to the loss of gamekeepers, who formerly kept its numbers down. Numbers of feral ferrets, the tamed version of the...

Specialized Sciences The 1800s

Arthur Tansley Ecology

Marine ecology focused on estimating the abundance of plankton, at the bottom of the food chain, and fish at the top, seeking in both cases causes of fluctuation in abundance. Advances in commercial fishing technology after the Second World War created an industry that could deplete oceans and great lakes of their resources, and ecologists and fishery biologists were needed to explain the level of harvesting that can be sustained. The same is true for shellfish, which must also be protected from pollution. Hasler's study of homing instinct in salmon facilitated development of 'salmon farming'. Tansley named and defined the 'ecosystem' concept in 1935 but did not lay its foundation. (Instead, he completed his large monograph, The British Islands and Their Vegetation, in 1939.) Raymond L. Lindeman, a Midwestern postdoctoral student under Hutchison, developed the ecosystem concept in the most important ecological article ever published, 'The Trophic-Dynamic Aspect of Ecology' (1942). It...

Silviculture and the replacement of trees

Why Rain Forests Are Important

It takes advantage of the mast fruiting of the Dipterocarpaceae (Sections 4.4.3-4), a family containing many of the most valuable Asiatic timber trees. Devised before World War II, its basis is the felling of the over-storey (harvest of mature trees) at a time when there are many dipterocarp seedlings and saplings present on the forest floor. These will have resulted from one of the irregularly produced very heavy mast years found in this family. Once released by the increased light resulting from felling, they grow away rapidly and give rise to the type of forest desired despite the presence of many other less desirable tree species.

Groundcover Or Woodmulch

Pictures Grasslands Root Systems

Some of the practices listed above involve engineering approaches while others might better be thought of as management strategies. Terracing is a good example of a technique that involves some traditional engineering design in terms of spacing, grades, and cross-sections (Ayres, 1936). This technique can be traced back to prehistoric times, and it has evolved independently in many cultures (Donkin, 1979). Windbreaks are analogous systems for controlling wind erosion (Stoeckeler and Williams, 1949), but they are composed of living species (trees) rather than nonliving terraces. An example of a technique that is more management oriented is no-till cropping (Little, 1987 Phillips et al., 1980). This is a particularly interesting technique because it represents a major shift in the approach to agriculture. Traditionally, crop agriculture relied on tillage of the soil (i.e., plowing and disking) to prepare for seeding and especially to control weed growth. This practice exposes the soil...

Ecological Engineering for Eutrophication Management in Coastal Zones

Despite the importance of natural events in algal bloom formation, many examples relate HABs to anthropogenic activities since World War II. Red tides (dinoflagellates) in Asia, for example, the mouth of the Yangtze Estuary in China and the Seto Inland Sea in Japan, are related to the parallel increasing population density and nitrogen (N) and (P) loadings. Nutrient-enriched conditions in brackish coastal bays and estuaries have been correlated with high abundance of diatoms (central California, Louisiana in the US), dinoflagellates (off the coast of North Carolina - US, Northern Adriatic, Aegean, and Black seas), and haloto-lerant cyanobacteria (Baltic Sea, Brazil, Australia), but the direct cause of this relationship is not fully understood. In tropical regions, eutrophication of reef communities often leads to the overgrowth of macroalgae on corals and high coral mortality that favor the bloom of benthic dinoflagellates (CFP producers). Both elevated N and P concentrations and...

Brief History of Landscape Ecology

Landscape ecology is a young but well-recognized ecological discipline dealing with the spatial distribution of organisms, patterns, and processes. This discipline developed after the Second World War in central and eastern Europe as an applied science used to manage the countryside. It became popular as a basic science, especially in the US, only during the last two decades.

Effects on Indigenous Peoples

Many of the development projects that began in the years after World War II gave little thought as to how such projects would affect local populations, other than assuming that they would benefit. While attitudes in development agencies have changed in recent years, the belief still remains that indigenous

Radioactive Contaminants in Human Food Chains

Following a nuclear weapons detonation or nuclear industrial accident, a variety of radioisotopes may be introduced into natural food webs, including those leading to human food products. However, the radionuclide of greatest concern is often the gamma-emitting isotope radiocesium (cesium-137). Characteristics of radiocesium which make it of particular concern as an environmental contaminant include the following (1) As a gamma-emitter, its emissions are highly penetrating of biological material and can cause extensive chemical genetic damage at greater distances from the isotope itself than would be the case of alpha- or beta-emitters whose radioactive emissions are less penetrating. (2) Radiocesium has a relatively long physical half-life of over 30 years which means that significant levels of this isotope could remain in the environment itself for well over a century unless the isotope is eliminated from the system by biological ecological processes. (3) Within the body,...

The Lotka Volterra Model

Why did a complete closure of fishery during World War I cause an increase in predatory fish and a decrease in prey fish in the Adriatic Sea This was the question that led Vito Volterra to formulate a mathematical conceptualization of prey-predator population dynamics. In his endeavor to explain mechanisms by which predators regulate their prey, he constructed a mathematical model that describes temporal changes in prey and predator abundances. The model makes several simplifying

Where should we focus conservation effort

Species Richness

On the basis of these definitions, both governments and nongovernmental organizations have produced threatened species lists (the basis of analyses like that shown in Table 7.4). Clearly, these lists provide a starting point for setting priorities for developing plans to manage individual species. However, resources for conservation are limited and spending the most money on species with the highest extinction probabilities will be a false economy if a particular highly ranked species would require a huge recovery effort but with little chance of success (Possingham et al., 2002). As in all areas of applied ecology, conservation priorities have both ecological and economic dimensions. In desperate times, painful decisions have to be made about priorities. Wounded soldiers arriving at field hospitals in the First World War were subjected to a

Population Human Curbs to Growth

As quickly as the population explosion of the post-World War II era became a cause celebre, developing countries began to consider ways to slow growth. It became apparent that population growth rates reached in the 1960s would cause their populations to double every twenty-five years, a situation that was without precedent in history.

Palestinian Painted Frog

In an attempt to tame the environment and make it more hospitable and profitable for its human inhabitants, plans were proposed to drain Lake Huleh with the goals of eradicating malaria, creating land suitable for agriculture, and safeguarding the water for human use. Although the plans were proposed in the 1930s, World War II, the Israeli War of Independence, and other pressing domestic concerns delayed action until the 1950s. The scientific community pleaded for more extensive study of the lake and the impacts of the proposed drainage, but difficult working conditions and political instability impeded their efforts. The drainage plans went forward in 1951 and were completed in 1958 (Dimentman, Bromley, and Por, 1992).

Birds of Quam and the Brown Tree Snake

The island of Guam is the largest and southernmost island of the Mariana archipelago, located to the north of New Guinea. Following World War II, Guam became an important U.S. naval base and a repository for a large amount of military equipment used throughout the Pacific during the war. It is believed that the brown tree snake, a fearsome arboreal predator, first arrived in Guam as a stowaway on one of these interisland shipments. Because of similarities in markings and coloration, it is

Agriculture and Biodiversity Loss Industrial Agriculture

Over the last fifty to eighty years, most of the world's agriculture has been transformed into an industrial agriculture. In the 1920s machines began to replace human and animal power for preparing soil, planting, weeding, and harvesting crops. Since the 1930s, newly developed, high-yielding crop varieties have been replacing traditional varieties. Most of these new varieties require inputs such as irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. Since the end of World War II, industrial agriculture has increasingly applied synthetic pesticides and fertilizers (Figures 1 and 2). In the 1960s, this

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