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Harpacticoids unaffected

Link between harpacticoids and microalgae, nematodes and bacteria

High incidence of symbiotic relationships among euglenoids and ciliates with bacteria. No difference in length: diameter relationship in seep vs. control nematodes. Largest body diameter nematodes were from seeps.

Montagna et al. 1987. 1989

Buck & Barry 1998

188 centre Kinorhynchs and ostracods absent at seep

4.2 edge Dominant nematodes were Daptonema

(2 spp - 20%. 13%) and Chromadorita (12%); control - Microlaimus (25%); dominance higher in the control sediments (silt) than seep (coarse) but lower H' at seeps.

6.8 control Deeper vertical distribution of seep species; this paper suggests lack of adaptation relative to megafauna; seep assemblages more similar to control than to distant reducing systems (vents and Gulf of Mexico seeps); local adaptation of oxybiotic species suggested

Shirayama & Ohta 1990

Gas hydrates, 790 m

1 mat, 2215-2238 m

Mud volcanoes, surficial sediments, 5000 m Bubbling reef (methane), 42-500 (Jm*

DNA inventories 3.5-3.9 times higher in clam and bacterial mat than in control sites. Total adenylates (biomass estimate) exceeded control by 3.5 and 5.9 times in clam and bacterial mat. Different vertical distribution, biomass concentrated in upper 8 cm in bacterial mat and focused deeper (to 20 cm) in clam bed. Surface focus in control samples.

Not compared with control

Total meiofauna: 381 in mat vs. 68.45 in control (5.5 times higher), nematodes: 286 in mat vs. 51.5 in control (10 cnr3) (5.5 times higher) 116-6541 (ind 10 cnr2)

65 0 X 103 ind nr2

53% thin

Arcobacter mat, 36% thick Arcobacter mat, 56% mussel beds

75% at seep vs. 75% in control

34.1% in thin Arcobacter mats, 50% in thick mats, 37.7% in mussel bed (includes copepodites) 22% in Beggiatoa mat, 21% in non seep

*Mesh size used to separate nematodes from sediments.

Lower chlorophyll a inventories in seep Sommer et al. sediments suggest higher degradation; 2002 aerobic methane oxidation accounts for little of the carbon remineralization ta

Other taxa present include ostracods Robinson et al. O

polychaetes. bivalves, gastropods. 2004 p isopods q

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