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The beyond-BACI-PS sampling designs and gradient analyses were introduced in Chapter 2. In order to illustrate how multivariate methods can be used to describe effects we used data on the effects of oil exploration and production in the Gyda oilfield on the Norwegian continental shelf. Pollution from oilfields in the early days of the oil industry in the North Sea and along the Norwegian continental shelf was from discharges of drilling cuttings into the sea near the boring well or production platform.
The lifestyle of the world's richer countries is much dependent on fossil fuels. Table 2.2 shows that our worldwide use of energy for heating, cooking, transport, operating factories and so on, is about 20 times that of the food we eat. Most of it comes from fossil fuels. The world's resources of fossil fuels are finite, but predicting how long they will last is notoriously difficult. If the present rate of use of coal and oil is compared with known reserves that are likely to be extractable, this suggests that coal will last 1-2 centuries and oil about half a century (UN Energy Statistics Yearbook 1995). However, the world's total coal is estimated to be at least 10 times as much as the 'known recoverable'. The size of known stocks of oil tends to depend on how much money and effort the oil companies spend on exploration, so there are likely to be reserves not yet discovered. In any case, it may never be possible to use all these reserves, because of the effect the released C02 would...
Saturation diving from underwater chambers in which divers can live at pressure has obvious advantages in time and costs and is much used by the offshore oil industry. At any particular pressure the body can absorb only a certain amount of gas before becoming saturated. Once the saturation point is reached, no more gas will be absorbed and the time required for decompression will then be the same, however long the duration of the dive. Divers return to their submerged 'house' to feed or sleep and replenish their gas supplies, allowing them to have relatively long working periods at depth without time wasted on frequent decompression and resurfacing. A diver who spends a week at 150 m requires only the same decompression period as one who descends to that depth for only one hour.
The second part of society's industrial metabolism stems from the interaction with other economies. In the UK case, not surprisingly, fossil fuels are also the main component of imports and exports. Imports of fossil fuels became relevant after World War II and reached a peak during 1970-74, when around 130 million tons (mainly crude oil) were imported yearly. Up to this point, fossil fuels also made a dominant contribution to the UK exports, mainly as coal. This changed with the start of the North Sea gas and oil industry. Since around 1975, imports of fossil fuels have decreased considerably while exports have exploded. If we look at the foreign trade with fossil fuels from the perspective of a
Recreational hunting caused this extinction. The countries of the Arabian Peninsula are essentially sea frontages, the inland boundaries being little more than lines on a map. There is little control over activities in the hinterlands. Oil company employees and their followers used company trucks for hunting trips and seemed to have been at least partly responsible for the decline. Then there were the large motorized hunting expeditions originating mainly from Saudi Arabia. These were self-contained convoys that included fuel and water tankers. The vehicles and support facilities allowed large areas to be swept each day with efficient removal of the wildlife. Their main quarry was bustards and hares secured by hawking, but gazelles and Arabian oryx were also chased. One such party crossed into the Aden Protectorate (now the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen) in 1961 and killed 48 Arabian oryx, about half the population of that region. In the 1960s large parties from Qatar would...
The great attraction of desalting water is that over 97 of the world's supply of water is saline furthermore, much of it is contiguous to arid regions. An example of the importance of desalting is the experience at Kuwait. During the early 1950s, the Kuwait Oil Company built an oil refinery dependent on desalted water from the Gulf. In 1953, the Kuwait government put into service a then-large capacity (1.2 mgd) desalting plant of 10 triple-effect, submerged tube evaporators. This installation is also an example of economics favorable to desalting, as the heat source for the evaporative process was waste or natural gas.
Landbirds that migrate over oceans provide some of the most extreme examples of endurance flight and precise navigation when they travel, without opportunity to feed, drink or rest, over vast areas of open water devoid of helpful landmarks. Nor can they stop and take shelter, as birds do over land, when the weather turns against them. While some landbirds on overwater flights take whatever opportunities for rest are available, stopping on ships, oil-rigs and other installations, or even on mats of floating vegetation or other flotsam, these individuals probably represent an exhausted minority, and almost certainly most landbirds make water-crossings non-stop.
Be of great strength to withstand the enormous water pressures encountered in the deeps and must be provided with lighting equipment to illuminate the surroundings. In recent years, the development of the offshore oil industry has led to the design of a number of manned submersibles and unmanned remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). In addition to the vehicle itself, surface support vessels, handling gear, logistic and maintenance support are needed.
Although habitat management and protection are the mainstays of marine conservation, some rare and vulnerable species are given statutory protection in their own right. This again follows the established pattern for terrestrial conservation. In the UK the 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act provides full protection for all cetaceans in UK waters. Guidelines have also been produced by the DOE for minimizing acoustic disturbance to small cetaceans. These are intended for use by operators of installations such as oil rigs and ships carrying out seismic surveys (DOE, 1995). Seals are given partial protection (closed seasons) under the Protection of Seals Act 1970.