Orchid Growing Training Course

Orchid Care Tips

The Internet's Original Orchid Growing Training Course. Discover the #1 most important step you should take to keep your orchid plants healthy, brilliant and insect-free. How do you know if your orchid plant it truly dead or just in a dormant state preparing to bloom again for you? Youll find out in our free course! A simple, easy method for knowing exactly when its time for repotting your orchids and giving them the best orchid propagation chances possible. Heres Just a Small Sampling of What Youll Discover in this Amazing Resource: Discover the common mistake everyone makes about epiphytic orchids and how to avoid it! Discover the 3 capacities of the labellum and why they are critical to your orchids survival. Learn the amazing prediction Darwin made about Xanthopan morgani praedicta. Here are 3 simple ways to insect-proof your greenhouse. When your orchid has exhausted its compost these 3 signs appear. Think all orchids offer nectar to insects? Find out why this common misconception is false and the Real trait all orchids share. These are the 7 crucial, life-giving minerals your orchid needs to survive. Learn why your pods might just contain over 186,300 seeds for propagation! Ever find your orchid blushing violently and then wilting? Put an end to it once you read page 4. Having problems feeding your epiphyte? This very special technique will solve your problems once and for all. Got Pests? Diseases? Spotted Flowers? This might be the silent killer youre facing. Learn the light trick and find out if your orchids Really have no more buds. How to tell the difference between monopodial and sympodial groups (and why the difference is important to your future as an orchid grower.) Read more...

Orchid Care Tips Summary


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Ground Locomotion Speed

Comyn, 1971 Spirito and Mushrush, 1979). At its highest speed, P. americana shifts its body weight posteriorly and becomes bipedal by sprinting on its hind legs. The body is raised well off the ground and an aerial phase is incorporated into each step in a manner remarkably similar to bipedal lizards (Fig. 2.1). Periplaneta can cover 50 body lengths sec in this manner (Full and Tu, 1991). As pointed out by Heinrich (2001), by that measure they can run four times faster than a cheetah. Other studied cockroaches are slower and less efficient. The maximum speed for Blaberus discoidalis, for example, is less than half of that of P. americana. The former is a more awkward runner, with a great deal of wasted motion (Full and Tu, 1991). Speed is known to vary with temperature (Blab. discoidalis), substrate type, sex, and developmental stage (B. germanica) (Wille, 1920 Full and Tullis, 1990). Hughes and Mill (1974) note that it is the ability to change direction very rapidly that often gives...

Budget effects of plant size on fitness gains

Several studies have presented results that are consistent with Fig. 3.4a. In monoecious populations of the perennial aquatic herb Sagittaria lati-folia, female flower production increases steadily with ramet size, but male flower production remains constant (Sarkissian et al. 2001). The many herbivory studies that have found no influence of defoliation (which reduces the resources available to a plant) on male investment also provide indirect evidence for resource dependence of female, but not male effort. For example, simulated defoliation of a woodland orchid Dactylorhiza maculata reduced capsule production, but did not affect pollinium mass (Vallius and Salvonen 2000). In addition, small individuals in some animal-pollinated species act solely as males, and their breeding system may be mistakenly regarded as androdioecious (Charlesworth 1984). As Fig. 3.4a suggests, these plants may in fact benefit more from aborting seeds to enhance their paternal success.

Life history evolution

The third question, then, is concerned with links between life histories and habitats. How does it come about that orchids, for example, produce vast numbers of tiny seeds when tropical Mora trees produce just a few enormous ones Can the difference be related directly to differences in the habitats that they occupy, or to any other differences between them

Box 51 Types of mycorrhiza

Three types exist, all growing on members of the Erica family or close relatives, such as the heathers, rhododendrons and wintergreens Pyrola on very acid soils but also includes Indian pipes yellow bird's-nest, Monotropa which are non-green and entirely myco-heterotrophic (living off fungi, see Box 3.1). Orchidaceous Fungi Basidiomycetes. Orchid seeds have almost no food reserves and so are totally dependent upon the fungus until the orchid becomes photosynthetic which may be a number of years after germinating. Some are non-green and permanently dependent upon the fungus. Based on information from Calow (1998), Thomas (2000) and Deacon (2006)

Six Types of Wetlands

Wet meadows occur where land is flooded in some seasons and moist in others, such as along the shores of rivers or lakes. Wet meadows often have high plant diversity, including carnivorous plants and orchids. Examples of wet meadows include wet prairies, slacks between sand dunes, and wet pine savannas. Pine savannas may have up to 40 species of plants in a single square meter, and hundreds of species in a hundred hectares.

Box 61 Conservation value of aspen stands in maintaining the diversity of animal plant and fungus groups in Scotland

As already mentioned most indicators of ancient woodlands do not readily colonize new sites so their presence tends to show that the community is long-lived, although there are regional differences. In Shropshire, for example, dog's mercury Mercurialis perennis is found in gardens and recent hedgerows as well as base-rich woodlands, but it is an ancient woodland vascular plant indicator (AWVP) in the more continental climate of eastern Britain (Rackham, 2003). The AWVP list for Shropshire gives both strong indicators and others which are either less strong or relatively weak (Whild, 2003). Species such as herb paris are found only within ancient woodlands in Shropshire, but in general a really good indication is provided by the presence of at least half a dozen AWVPs of which bluebell Hyacinthoides non-scripta, early-purple orchid Orchis mascula, moschatel Adoxa moschatellina, primrose Primula vulgaris, sanicle Sanicula europaea, sweet woodruff Galium odoratum, toothwort Lathraea...

Conservation biodiversity population integrity and uniqueness

A high diversity of indigenous understorey plants can also occur under monocultures of radiata pine Pinus radiata when conditions are good this may be influenced by soil improvement due to mycorrhizal fungi. An extreme example of high biodiversity in an exotic stand was the occurrence of 30 different indigenous orchids beneath black pines at Itwatahi, while two old radiata pines near Fox Glacier bore 8 species of fern and 11 angiosperms as epiphytes.

Taxonomic Affiliation

And this pattern has a phylogenetic background. Families with a disproportionally high representation of invasive aliens are concentrated within the classes Asteridae, Caryophyllidae, and Commelinidae. Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Convolvulaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae, Papaveraceae, and Polygonaceae are consistently over-represented in invasive alien floras, and Fabaceae are highly successful as invaders of natural areas. Many families of aquatic or subaquatic (Alismataceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Potamogetonaceae, and Typhaceae) and woody plants (Myrtaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Tamaricaceae) are over-represented among high-impact invaders. There are very few invasive aliens in the Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae. Evidence for invasiveness being phylogenetically related also at lower taxonomic levels comes from a study of gymnosperms. Twenty-eight of the 36 gymnosperms known to be invasive worldwide (78 ) belong to one family (Pinaceae) and 21 of these belong to the genus Pinus.

Brief History of the Plant Life Form Concept

It was not until Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) that the concept of the plant life-form for the vascular plants became formalized. He recognized 15 life-form groups (1) the banana form (e.g., Musa, Heliconia, and Strelitzia), (2) the palm form, (3) arborescent ferns, (4) the Arum form (e.g., Dracontium), (5) the conifer form (e.g., Taxus and Pinus), (6) all sharp-leaf forms (e.g., Stenocereus), (7) the tamarisk form (e.g., Mimosa and Gleditsia), (8) the mallow form (e.g., Hibiscus), (9) lianas (e.g., Vitis), (10) epiphytic orchids, (11) the cactus form, (12) the casuarina Equisetum form, (13) grasses, (14) the mosses, and (15) lichens. Using these 15 groups, von Humboldt identified vegetational types, grouped them into physiognomic classes, and recorded their changes along latitudinal and elevational transects. However, he did not write extensively on the relationship between the environment and plant life-forms.

Symbiosis with plant roots

By far the most common type of mycorrhizae are endomycorrhizae. These fall into several categories as classified by Smith and Read (1997) arbuscular, arbutoid, ericoid, monotropoid and orchid. The arbuscular mycorrhizae occur in most vascular and non-vascular plant families. Indeed most plants are capable of forming arbuscular mycorrhizae. The fungus species responsible are obligate symbionts that cannot be grown without the plant host. They occur in the Archemycota taxa Three other types of mycorrhizae are recognized. In the Ericales, which dominate many heathlands in the northern hemisphere, or the Epacrideceae in southern ecosystems, a characteristic ericoid morphology is recognized. The roots normally have few cell layers that are delicate. The cortical cells are colonized by dense intracellular hyphae. Epidermal cells that are colonized do not form root hairs. Dispersal of some fungal species is by arthroconidia, whereby the hyphae break into nucleated segments by septation. A...

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes

Versity, then it is not sufficient to just compare sites with different diversity (e.g. an orchid-rich hornbeam forest and a species-poor spruce forest). The biogeochemical cycles in natural or managed ecosystems (Chap. are influenced by many uncontrollable factors, such as history, which makes specific experimental investigations necessary.

Natural selection on floral traits

Early attempts to measure male fitness focused on pollen removal from flowers, first in milkweeds and orchids, which package pollen in pollinia (e.g., Willson and Price 1977 Queller 1983 Nilsson 1988), and later in species with granular pollen, particularly after automated particle counters made such measurements more practical and accurate (see Galen and Stanton 1989 Harder and Barrett 1993). However, Harder and Thomson (1989), using a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, showed that many floral traits may promote male siring success by reducing the number of pollen grains removed by each pollinator and instead placing pollen on more pollinators (Thomson and Thomson 1992 see also Stanton 1994). Therefore, pollen removal may often be a misleading proxy for male fitness.

CAM Plants 101 Introduction

In addition to C3 and C4 species, there are many succulent plants with another photosynthetic pathway Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). This pathway is named after the Crassulaceae, a family in which many species show this type of metabolism. CAM, however, also occurs commonly in other families, such as the Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae, and Bromeliaceae e.g., Ananas como-sus (pineapple) . There are about 10000 CAM species from 25 to 30 families (Table 11), all angiosperms, with the exception of a few fern species that also have CAM characteristics. Orchidaceae

Root Endophytes Pathogens

In addition to the facultative necrotrophic abilities of fairy ring fungi, other agarics, e.g. P. semilanceata, are able to colonize healthy cortical tissues of grasses but without clear evidence of any deleterious symptoms in the host (Keay and Brown, 1990). Similarly colonization of grass roots has been observed under field or microcosm conditions by species such as Melanoleuca grammopodia and Con-ocybe dunensis (McKay, 1968). In both there was some evidence of host specificity, with P. semilanceata exhibiting a preference for Agrostis tenuis and Poa annua over L. perenne, and infection rates by basidiomycete (clamped) hyphae being much higher for Ammophila arenaria than other sand dune grasses. Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph Rhizoctonia solani) is commonly isolated from grassland and arable soil (Garrett, 1951 Warcup and Talbot, 1962) and is a capable cellulolytic saprotroph. It is also an economically important necrotrophic pathogen in grassland, causing various diseases (e.g....

Ecosystem values ofplantations and natural forests

Known as woodland key habitats, are to be both identified and retained (see Sections 6.4.1-2). However, as demand for timber grows, it is inevitable that plantations will increase in area. More of our commercial timber already comes from plantations (34 - despite their comparatively small area Table 1.1) and managed secondary growth forests - i.e. felled and regrowing (22 ) -than from less managed forests (34 ) (Sedjo and Botkin, 1997). Such plantations often lack the biodiversity of unmanaged forests. In temperate and northern forests, the field and ground layer vegetation are key components in maintaining biodiversity. Fungi, lichens, herbs and shrub species differ considerably between plantation forests grown on former pasture and the sites of felled older woodlands, though all are subject to shade as the woodland matures, so plants characteristic of open sites are gradually lost, often with some of the associated animals. Most, but not all, comparisons of unmanaged forests and...

The effects of floral design and display on pollinator economics and pollen dispersal

This chapter reviews three aspects of pollinator manipulation by plants and their effects on pollen dispersal. First, because pollen dispersal for most animal-pollinated plants depends on the general responses of feeding pollinators to their foraging environment, we consider the underlying economic principles that establish the opportunities for floral manipulation. Second, we outline influences on the typical pattern of pollen dispersal among flowers for plants with granular pollen, and summarize how flower design affects this pattern (for a review of dispersal of orchid pollen, see Harder 2000). Finally, because pollination and mating success are characteristics of entire plants, rather than individual flowers, we consider how floral display affects pollinator attraction and within-plant behavior to determine pollen dispersal.

The scale of gene flow in plants

Typical immigration rates, as estimated by genetic data from an arbitrary sample of populations of a species, may obscure the importance of major disjunctions in limiting gene flow. As pollen- or seed-mediated gene flow between populations is highly unlikely beyond 30 km (a rule of thumb suggested by Coyne and Orr 2004), the status of tens of thousands of plant species as cohesive evolutionary units must be called into question, as disjunctions on this scale are common. The extent of isolation is underscored by a simple analysis of the distribution records for the southern African orchids which found disjunctions 100 km in more than half of the 458 species (Fig. 16.2). These disjunctions mostly involve ancient geographical features (mountain ranges, dry valleys, different soil types) and are thus unlikely to be transient or anthropogenic in origin. Figure 16.2 The frequency distribution of disjunctions in the ranges of the 458 orchid species that occur in southern Africa. The median...

Pollinators and reproductive isolation

As several authors have noted (Coyne and Orr 2004 Rieseberg et al. 2004), occasional hybridization in a contact zone does not threaten a species' existence. Examination of almost all classic examples of pollinator-mediated isolation between closely related taxa reveals that habitat differences are also a significant barrier to hybridization (Hodges and Arnold 1994b Goldblatt and Manning 1996 Campbell et al. 1997 Goulson and Jerrim 1997 Ramsey et al. 2003). For example, in Lapeirousia, pollinator shifts have occurred in four terminal sister pairs, three of which have also undergone shifts in substrate (Goldblatt and Manning 1996). Even orchids, which are notorious for their lack of postzygotic isolating barriers, offer few documented examples of fully sympatric sister taxa that owe their existence to differences in pollination systems (cf. Steiner et al. 1994). Such examples are probably rare because divergence of pollination systems typically occurs allopatrically and is thus likely...

Problems in urban forests the social interface

Despite the desire to visit woodland, many people live in places where access to natural woodlands is difficult, often due to ownership constraints. This is driven near major population centres by concerns about the likelihood of damage to the understorey vegetation from trampling. How are these beautiful natural ecosystems to be made available and how are they to be protected A splendid example is provided by the seven miles of Wenlock Edge owned by the National Trust (NT) in the West Midlands of England. Access to this geologically interesting wooded escarpment is via a footpath leading from an NT car park in the village of Much Wenlock, Shropshire. The walk takes you over a series of Silurian rocks dipping towards the south-east (Toghill, 1990). A lane leads up over the Aymestry Limestone, down the Lower Ludlow Shales and up the dip slope of the Wenlock Limestones of the major escarpment. The two limestones have both been extensively quarried in the past the soils to which they...

Responses to Specific Environmental Factors

One extreme, but very effective acclimatory adjustment to water stress, involves the upregulation of a suite of genes that result in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). The vast majority of plant species open stomata during the day in order to carry out photosynthesis, but this results in maximal loss of water when the air is driest and the leaves are heated the most. CAM is a photosynthetic pathway found primarily in succulent plants (e.g., cacti, agaves, orchids) growing in arid habitats (e.g., deserts) or microhabitats (e.g., rock outcrops, branches of subtropical and tropical trees). In contrast to the majority of plants, CAM plants fix CO2 at night (causing the stomata to open as CO2 is consumed), storing it as an acid in the vacuole, and then release the CO2 from the stored acid during the day (causing the stomates to close) for fixation into sugars in the chloroplast. This is a very effective means to minimize water loss, since the stomata are only open during the night when...

Dispersal of seeds and pollen

Types Dispersal Seeds And Fruits

Presumably, the evolution of specialized flowers and the involvement of animal pollinators have been favored because an animal may be able to recognize and discriminate between different flowers and so move pollen between different flowers of the same species but not to flowers of other species. Passive transfer of pollen, for example by wind or water, does not discriminate in this way and is therefore much more wasteful. Indeed, where the vectors and flowers are highly specialized, as is the case in many orchids, virtually no pollen is wasted even on the flowers of other species. Charles Darwin (1859) recognized that a long nectary, as in Aquilegia, forced a pollinating insect into close contact with the pollen at the nectary's mouth. Natural selection may then favor even longer nectaries, and as an evolutionary reaction, the tongues of the pollinator would be selected for increasing length - a reciprocal and escalating process of specialization. Nilsson (1988) deliberately shortened...

Plant life forms and biological spectra

Using the two criteria of height and bud protection, Raunkiaer originally divided the majority of phanerophytes into 12 groups, but he also recognized others, such as the epiphytic forms (including many aroids and orchids) which often grow on the trees of tropical and subtropical forests.

Specialized heterotrophs epiphytes parasites and saprotrophs

A large number of autotrophic algae, lichens and higher plants such as bromeliads and orchids hitch rides on the external surfaces of living plants, especially in moist subtropical and tropical climates. They take nothing from the host except a safe anchorage and so are classed as externally attached autotrophs (epiphytes). These obvious large epiphytes are accompanied by a much more widespread and varied microflora of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. Few of these can be classified as true epiphytes most are hetero-trophs, deriving a living from their hosts. The rhizosphere community (in the sheath of soil directly surrounding, and influenced by, the root, including the root surface - the rhizoplane) is mainly derived from the soil (Wood, 1989). It

Evolution of Suction Feeding

FIGURE 9.1 (A) Hawkmoth Xanthopan (Sphingidae) approaching the long-spurred blossom of an Angraecum orchid proboscis length approximately 220 mm (photo with permission of L.T. Wasserthal). (B) Orchid bee, Eulaema meriana, departing from a Calathea inflorescence (photo with permission of G. Dimijian). (C) Long-proboscid fly Moegistorhynchus longirostris (Nemestrinidae) at a flower of Ixia (photo with permission of S. Johnson). FIGURE 9.1 (A) Hawkmoth Xanthopan (Sphingidae) approaching the long-spurred blossom of an Angraecum orchid proboscis length approximately 220 mm (photo with permission of L.T. Wasserthal). (B) Orchid bee, Eulaema meriana, departing from a Calathea inflorescence (photo with permission of G. Dimijian). (C) Long-proboscid fly Moegistorhynchus longirostris (Nemestrinidae) at a flower of Ixia (photo with permission of S. Johnson). Many taxa within Hymenoptera have evolved elongate mouthparts in the context of nectar feeding 28,30 . Many of these feed on nectar using a...

Geographical modes of pollinatordriven speciation

One special case that may involve sympatric speciation deserves consideration, namely, sexual deception in orchids (Schiestl and Ayasse 2002 Schiestl et al. 2003 Mant et al. 2005). In these orchids, which attract male Hymenoptera chiefly by imitating the sex pheromones of female insects, a mutant with a novel fragrance could attract a different and non-overlapping set of pollinators (Schiestl and Ayasse 2002 Mant et al. 2005). However, despite common belief that sexually deceptive orchids attract male Hymenoptera of a specific species, molecular data show that gene flow between sexually deceptive orchid species is reasonably common (Soliva and Widmer 2003). Thus even in sexually deceptive orchids, specia-tion probably usually occurs allopatrically within a geographical mosaic of Hymenoptera species in response to selection favouring a shift to locally effective pollinators. Given that these orchids occasionally attract more than one pollinator species, this shift could occur according...

Box 91 Influence of humans on the forests of Crete and Cyprus

Cyprus Mediterranean Forests

In contrast, the number of olive trees is said to total 35 million, and there are many fruit trees including almonds, apples and pears. On the positive side many rare orchids and other native herbs characteristic of the very rich Cretan flora are beneath and between the trees in many of these plantations, particularly on the Lesithiou plateau (Sfikas, 2002). Of the many exotic trees Washingtonia palms Washingtonia robusta from the New World and eucalypts from Australia are especially prominent, while Agave americana is common in more open places. The date palm Phoenix dactylifera is now widely planted. In contrast the Cretan palm P. theophrastii (Fig. 9.3b), whose fruits are fibrous, blackish and inedible, is now restricted to a few small metapopulations of which the largest is at Vai on the eastern coast. This rare species, here found mainly in shallow damp valleys near the sea, also occurs in south-west Turkey.

Through pollinatorplant interactions

The celebrated match between long-spurred orchids and long-tongued hawkmoths (Nilsson 1988, 1998) has traditionally been attributed to a coevolutionary race between the flowers and pollinators, although an alternative version assuming that the long-tongued hawkmoths existed before the long-spurred orchids is also feasible. According to either scenario, the plants with longer spurs receive higher rates of pollen transfer to stigmas because the hawkmoths' proboscis bases are more likely to contact the floral sexual organs when the hawkmoths insert their tongues more deeply into the spurs. The open question is what factor(s) selected for the hawkmoths' long tongues. Two answers are feasible the traditional answer is that longer tongues are associated with greater net rate of energy gain and fitness while feeding on flowers with long spurs. A non-mutually-exclusive alternative suggested recently by Wasserthal (1993, 1997, 1998) is that tongues longer than spurs also allow hawkmoths to...

The geographical pollinator mosaic

Inbreeding Depression

The geographical pollinator mosaic is the basis for all allopatric and parapatric divergence in pollination systems. Yet, spatial and temporal variation in pollinator faunas remains poorly documented (see Chapter 15). Grant was keenly aware of its importance, and emphasized the significance of patterns in the distributions of hummingbirds, hawk moths, bumble bees, and flies within North America for plant evolution (Grant and Grant 1965 Grant 1983, 1994a). Unfortunately, much of this perspective seems to have been lost with the more recent emphasis on studies at single localities and reductionist approaches to studying pollination systems in general. Darwin himself was guilty on this score, as his famous orchid studies were conducted mostly at a single locality near his house. Despite being invaluable in showing the functional significance of floral traits, these studies did not provide the same insights into diversification that were afforded by Darwin's comparative studies of animals...

Roots foraging and competition

Norway Spruce Root Pattern

Adventitious roots above ground have several other uses in forest trees. A number of rain-forest trees, both tropical and temperate, produce canopy roots from the trunk and branches which grow down the outside of the tree and exploit humus pockets collected by the numerous epiphytic plants. These roots can also reabsorb nutrients that have been leached out of foliage higher up and washed down the tree. More widespread around the world, some trees and shrubs develop adventitious roots on stems touching the soil and this can result in vegetative reproduction. This layering often gives rise to plants that eventually become functionally - and often physically - independent of the parent. An extreme case of this is seen in the layered beech at Arley Arboreum, Worcestershire, England where an erect tree planted at least two centuries ago has now completely disappeared, but its layered remains form a contorted series of vigorous trunks and branches that now cover around a quarter of an acre...

What are Tropical Rain Forests

Rain forests contain more different kinds of plants than any other forest in the world. Scientists have counted more than 250 species of trees in small tracts of rain forest in South America and southeast Asia. A similar plot of forest in northern New York would contain only about 10 to 15 tree species. In addition to trees, rain forests contain a great variety of herbs, small palms, bamboos, climbing vines, ferns, and epiphytes such as orchids, bromeli-ads, and mosses that grow directly on the trunks and branches of large trees. Recent findings suggest that about 45 percent of the world's plant species occur in tropical rain forests.

Positive Interactions

Ecology Important Algae

There are two types of positive interactions, mutualisms and commensalisms (Morin, 1999 Stiling, 1999). Mutualisms occur when all species involved gain some benefit from the interaction. Well-known examples of mutualisms include the positive effects generated between fungi and algae that produce lichens found on rocks or trees, corals and microscopic algae that form the ocean's tropical reef systems, flowering plants and their insect pollinators, and fungi or bacteria and the roots of most plants on earth. Commensalisms occur when at least one species benefits from the interaction but the other species have a neutral response. Commensalisms include common and general relationships, such as trees providing living space or attachment sites for birds, bee hives, or orchids. In addition, animals including beavers, earthworms, and prairie dogs can physically modify or engineer habitats, creating more hospitable conditions or greater resources for other species.

Carcharias megalodon See Megatooth shark

A 'Darwin CD-ROM,' edited by Ghiselin and Goldie (1997), is available which contains the full text of (i) most of CD's major books ( Journal*Zoology, *CoralReefs, Cirripedia, *Origin, Orchids, *Descent, *Expression), (ii) a few of his shorter papers (including Strickland et al. 1843), and (iii) Ghiselin (1969). The CD-ROM also contains a Darwin Biographical Dictionary, a Darwin Bibliography, pictures, and some fluff (details in Provine (1997) and at www.lbin.com).

Km X206 0017 109 9u

The primary benefit derived by plants involved in mycorrhizal symbioses is generally perceived to be enhanced nutrient uptake, achieved by the fungus expanding the zone of nutrient uptake farther away from the rhizosphere and or more efficiently taking up and transporting nutrients. The nutrients that are taken up by the fungus depend on the type of mycorrhiza. Generally, all types of mycorrhizal fungi are able to transport N and P. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi primarily increase the plant's access to N, but also to P, Ca, and Fe. AM fungi have been studied mostly for their ability to enhance P nutrition, but also play a role in the uptake of N, K, and Zn. EM fungi have saprotrophic abilities and are able to access organic forms of N and P. As described above, monotropoid and orchid mycorrhizal fungi transport C, in addition to N and P, to their mycoheterotrophic hosts. Recently, as mycorrhizal researchers have learned more about the ecological outcomes of mycorrhizal symbioses, the...

Cost of reproduction and allocation of energy

Field studies documenting the effect of reproduction on growth, survival, and future reproduction are not abundant. Primack and Hall (1990) showed that reproduction in pink lady's slipper orchids (Cypripedium acaule) is limited by bee pollination, but seed production could be greatly increased through hand pollination. As seed production increased, the cost of reproduction took effect in the third and fourth years. Handpollinated plants had lower growth and flowering rates than controls. For example, an average-sized hand-pollinated plant lost 10-13 of leaf area and had a 5-16 lower flowering rate as compared to control plants. In red deer (American elk) (Cervus elaphus) (Clutton-Brock 1984, Clutton-Brock et al. 1982, 1989) and in lizards (Tinkle 1969) it has been shown that great reproductive effort leads to declining fecundity and reduced survivorship. In American bison (Bison bison) sons suckle longer than daughters (up to 15 months). Cows that have produced sons breed later and...

International Agreements On Conservation And Resource Management

Or skin that reaches the foreign market, many more are destroyed in hunting, trapping and transporting. The purchasing countries can most effectively control the illegal trade in wildlife. This can be done by directing fashion away from the use of wild furs and by restricting the purchase of wild animals. In 1973, representatives of 80 countries signed the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, which prohibited commercial trade in 375 endangered species of wild animals. The treaty forbids trade in products derived from the animals as well as in living animals. The provisions also included endangered plants (such as rare orchids that now are being removed even from the remotest tropical forests).

Mychorrhizal Associations

Two additional types of mycorrhizae are found among the Ericaceae (heath family) and the Orchidaceae (orchid family). These are sometimes classified as endomycorrhizae (Fitter and Hay 1987). In the Ericaceae, which commonly grow in peatlands, hyphae form an extensive web over the root surface. The principal role of the fungus is to release enzymes into the soil that break down organic compounds, making nitrogen available to the plant and allowing the Ericaceae to inhabit nitrogen-poor peatlands. In the Orchidaceae, mycorrhizae are associated with the seeds and seedlings. Without the appropriate mycorrhizae, the orchid seed will not germinate since it has no endosperm and depends on the fungus as a carbohydrate source for germination and seedling growth. Many orchids including species of the genera Cypripedium (lady-slipper), Orchis (orchis), Habenaria (rein orchid), Listera (twayblade), and Spiranthes (ladies' tresses), as well as Isotria verticillata (whorled pogonia), Arethusa...

Coastally restricted forests

Rain The City

The forests of the Island of Madeira were not subject to the ice ages which ravaged north-west Europe in the Quaternary this has led to the survival of a laurel forest or Laurissylva that is almost identical to that existing in the Tertiary period (see Fig. 1.1). A considerable portion of this forest survives virtually intact, though its integrity is threatened by the introduction and spread of acacias, eucalypts, Douglas fir and other forest trees (Section 5.6). The present state of knowledge regarding the origin, history and dynamics of this remarkable rain forest is outlined in Packham (2004). The laurel forests form a mosaic, heavily influenced by relative humidity, which differ in their structure and floristic composition, as Costa Neves et al. (1996) demonstrated. Lianas are uncommon while ferns are abundant hare's foot fern Davallia canariensis and Macaronesian polypody Polypodium macaronesicum are amongst those being epiphytic on trees. The rich damp soils support a wide...



Figure 11 Examples of allomones involved in chemical mimicry. (a) The bolas spider (Mastophora phyrnosoma) emits a chemical mimic of its prey's sexual pheromones. As soon as the lured male moths get into striking distance, the spider swings the sticky ball of glue which is suspended on a short thread at its prey to catch it. (b) The orchid Ophrys sphegodes lures males of the solitary bee Andrena nigroaenea by emitting semiochemicalsthat resemble the bee's sexual pheromone as well as visual cues that mimic female bees. (c) A sexually excited male of A. nigroaenea pollinates a flower of O. sphegodes during attempts to copulate with it. (a) Photograph by Kenneth F. Haynes, with permission. (b) and (c) Photograph by Manfred Ayasse, with permission. Figure 11 Examples of allomones involved in chemical mimicry. (a) The bolas spider (Mastophora phyrnosoma) emits a chemical mimic of its prey's sexual pheromones. As soon as the lured male moths get into striking distance, the spider swings the...

Natural selection

The converse of this is negative frequency-dependent selection, which occurs if a trait is more advantageous when it is relatively rare. An example of this is the maintenance of both yellow and purple flowers in populations of the Elderflower orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina. This species relies on insect pollinators but does not reward them with any nectar. If yellow is the most common colour within a population, insects are likely to visit yellow flowers first. However, when their first visit is not rewarded, their next visit will generally be to a purple flower. As a result, the relatively rare purple flowers will receive a large proportion of insect visits and therefore should have higher fitness values than the yellow flowers. This relatively high fitness means that purple flowers eventually will become more common than yellow flowers, at which point negative frequency-dependent selection will favour yellow flowers until such time as the situation is reversed once more (Gigord,...


Terrestrial epiphytes comprise a taxonomically and morphologically diverse range of relatively large vascular plants (notably bromeliads, orchids, and ferns), and small nonvascular bryophytes (mosses and liverworts), lichens, and free-living algae. Growth forms include creepers, mats, brackets, nests, pendants, and shrubs. Most terrestrial epiphytes are self-contained on the bark or branches of their host, except for hemiepiphytes, which have roots reaching down to the ground. Not considered here are the mistletoes, which are parasitic, and the vines or lianas, which although using other plants for physical support do not have a crown attached to the host.


Resource parasitism through pollination is evident in ''floral mimicry,'' whereby a species realizes increased pollination because its flowers resemble those of an unrelated species with respect to morphology, colour, spectral reflectance, inflorescence architecture, and flowering time (Rathcke 1983 Johnson et al. 2003a). In Batesian mimicry, a rare unrewarding species receives pollinator visits as a result of its resemblance to a more common, rewarding species (Johnson 1994 Johnson et al. 2003a). Such mimicry is rare and confined mainly to orchids (reviewed by Johnson et al. 2003a). In contrast, with Mullerian mimicry, character convergence among two or more rewarding species increases the effective density of reward for pollinators, improving pollination (Rathcke 1983). This process would involve cooperative pollinator sharing, rather than resource parasitism in the strict sense, but no unequivocal examples of floral


Postclosure landfills can be a good refuge for rare species including wild orchids, and are important to the conservation of native flora. Older sites are better developed in terms of soil quality and vegetation coverage. Ecosystem development on closed landfills can be rapid and is accelerated by artificial planting and good management practices.

Mutual interference

Totrophic mycorrhizae), in which the fungus forms a mantle around the smaller roots, as in many temperate and boreal trees, and endomycorrhizae (endotrophic mycorrhizae), in which the fungus grows around and within the cortex cells of the roots, as in many herbaceous plants. Orchids and heathers have further specialized types of mycorrhizae, in which there is both a mantle and cell penetration. The mycorrhizal relationship is somewhat flexible. In seedling trees and orchids and sometimes as adults, the plant is in effect parasitic on the fungus, but the relationship changes, and in the fungal fruiting season the fungus takes a lot from the plant, which is transporting nutrients to its roots. Between times the relationship is effectively mutualistic. mycotrophic Describing an association between an organism and a fungus in which the organism derives nutrients from the fungus (see mycorrhiza). The term is also used in a more restricted sense to refer only to associations where the...

Dependent way

Larly with respect to interactions among several traits. In nature, many unrewarding species are rare orchids, so if increasing phenotypic variability within a population can increase the total number of pollinator visits to the species, this may have important conservation implications (Ferdy et al. 1998).


The fact that honeybee and orchid bee flight is fueled by glucose (Gmeinbauer & Crailsheim 1993, Suarez et al. 2005) suggests that parasitoids likewise can fuel their flight - which is energetically very costly (see Hoferer et al. 2000, on C. glomerata) - using this particular sugar). Since glucose can be obtained either directly or indirectly from sugar-rich foods, consumption of the latter is likely to influence the propensity to initiate flight, the duration of flights, and possibly other dispersal-related variables. Flight initiation was slightly increased by honey provision in female Trichogramma minutum (Forsse et al. 1992). Flight duration in Nasonia vitripennis was not affected by prior exposure to honey (King 1993), but Wanner et al. (2006) showed that pre-flight feeding by female C. glomerata on floral and extrafloral nectar increased the insects' flight capacity, defined as either the longest single flight (i.e. duration), the number of flights undertaken, or the total...

The CAM pathway

In general, CAM plants are found in arid environments where strict stomatal control of daytime water is vital for survival (desert succulents) and where CO2 is in short supply during the daytime, for example in submerged aquatic plants, and in photosynthetic organs that lack stomata (e.g. the aerial photosynthetic roots of orchids). In some CAM plants, such as Opuntia basilaris, the stomata remain closed both day and night during drought. The CAM process then simply allows the plant to 'idle' - photosynthesizing only the CO2 produced internally by respiration (Szarek et al., 1973).

Why flowers evolve

Hundreds of ecological studies demonstrate that receipt of compatible pollen is the major proximate limitation on seed production (Burd 1994 Ashman et al. 2004). Therefore, selection should favour traits that alleviate this bottleneck to fitness (Johnston 1991 Chapters 2, 4, and 10). Indeed, the strength of selection through female function varies positively with the intensity of pollen limitation (Ashman and Morgan 2004). Interestingly, and in contradiction to theory (Chapter 10), shifts between pollinators, rather than selfing, may be the most common evolutionary outcome of pollen limitation. This outcome is exemplified by the orchids, a huge family in which pollinator shifts are common, and autonomous self-pollination rare

Adaptive radiation

Biologists have tended to attribute adaptive radiations to features of the organisms themselves. This ''key innovation'' approach has been used to explain why some angiosperm lineages have radiated more than others (Chapter 17). For example, Cozzolino and Widmer (2005) attributed the explosive speciation of orchids to their tendency to lack floral rewards, a trait that promotes cross-pollination (cf. Johnson et al. 2004). Using the relative number of species in sister lineages as a measure of the rate of diversification, Hodges and coworkers (Hodges and Arnold 1995 Hodges 1997 Chapter 17) showed that the evolution of floral spurs contributes to higher rates of specia-tion. Thus floral spurs are considered a key innovation. Although Hodges strongly emphasized the role that spurs play in reproductive isolation, spurs could also promote diversification because of their role in the development of specialized pollination systems that are more likely to undergo adaptive shifts in a...


From herbs to shrubs to trees, and forms, such as succulents in dry habitats (such as cacti), submerged aquatics both in freshwater and marine habitats (for example, sea grasses, or Zosteraceae), epiphytes (for example, most orchids and bromeliads), and insectivorous plants in bogs (such as sundews, Drosera Venus's flytrap, Dionaea pitcher plants, Sarracenia and so forth). Life cycles also vary, ranging from herbaceous annuals that complete their life cycle within one growing season to herbaceous biennials (for example, beet, Beta vulgaris, and carrot, Daucus carrota) that grow vegetatively in the first season and then flower and fruit in the second season to herbaceous and woody perennials that grow for many years, often flowering and fruiting each year. Examples of perennial herbs are savanna grasses and lilies. In temperate areas, the aerial parts of perennials often die back, with new shoots produced the following year from underground rhizomes, bulbs, corms, tubers, or stolons....

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