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Invasion Dynamics at a Local Scale Analysed Using Aerial Photographs

At the local scale, regression models that establish a relationship between the area invaded from an invasion focus and time have been useful in quantifying invasion patterns (Higgins and Richardson, 1996). Data from an analysis of historical aerial photographs showing the invasion of the Slavkovsky les region, Czech Republic, by H. mantegazzianum (Mullerova et al., 2005) provide an insight into the invasion history of a noxious alien species on a local scale. This species is easily detectable on aerial photographs taken at flowering and early fruiting, from June to August (Fig. 3.4). These data document the invasion from the beginning, which is rarely possible for other alien plants, and therefore allow an analysis of the rate of spread and a study of the species' population dynamics. Fig. 3.4. Series of aerial photographs showing H. mantegazzianum invading one of the localities in the Slavkovsky les region, where the species was first introduced as a garden ornamental in 1862 and...

Digital cameras and camcorders

Just like with your other portable gadgets, making energy-saving adjustments to your digital camera or camcorder that extend battery life can increase the number of shots or hours of footage you can capture. And as with all portable gadgets that have backlit screens, turning down the brightness uses less battery juice. Look through the viewfinder. Turning off your camcorder's LCD viewfinder and looking through the lens instead (if your model has one) can help the battery last longer. Ditto for your digital camera's LCD viewfinder and preview feature. Shutting off the small screen and waiting until the gadget is plugged in again to preview snapshots or captured video also keeps the battery alive much longer. Focus on focusing less. Partly pressing the shutter release on your digital camera or camcorder to gauge or activate the autofocus feature makes the gadget's motor whir, which uses lots of power. Focus on testing the focus less often, until you're truly ready to take the shot....

Satellite remote sensing

On the other hand, even though satellite imagery and the requisite analytical software are increasingly becoming available at little or no cost, use of these methods still requires substantial investment of time and effort, as well as capital expenditure. Careful consideration should be given to whether satellite imagery offers the most cost-effective way of addressing the issue at hand, or whether some cheaper, alternative method might be available. A valuable critique of the use of remote sensing in forest planning is provided by Holmgren and Thuresson (1998), which highlights a series of limitations in the technique, such as the difficulty of differentiating more than a small number of different forest types, and the high levels of inaccuracy that are often associated with vegetation classifications based on remote sensing imagery. Satellite sensors are only able to detect the canopy from above, and cannot directly measure the age, structure, height, or volume of forest stands,...

Analysing changes in forest cover

Aerial photography can be used for very detailed assessment of rates and patterns of change in forest area (Price 1986) as photographs are often obtained relatively easily, this is frequently the method of choice. Aerial photographs have the added advantage of being potentially available over longer time periods than other types of One of the biggest challenges to the analysis of changes in forest cover is the fact that the characteristics of the imagery often differ over time. Satellite remote sensing data are only available from the early 1970s onwards, and therefore detection of change that has occurred over longer timespans than the past 30 years requires other imagery, such as aerial photographs. Even in this case, earlier photographs are likely to be black-and-white rather than colour images, which can complicate interpretation and comparative analysis. Comparison between aerial photographs and satellite data can be achieved by using visual methods this is most readily achieved...

Forest extent and condition 252 Mapping different forest types

Mapping the distribution of different ecological communities, defined in terms of species composition, is generally done by field survey, which can often usefully be supported by interpretation of aerial photographs (Avery 1968). Forest stands, or areas with relatively homogeneous species composition, can often be differentiated on photographs through differences in colour and texture. In forests with a relatively high diversity of tree species, this method is less reliable. Although estimates of accuracy are rarely provided, the use of aerial photographs to assist in the process of identifying tree species and mapping forest communities is well accepted. Experienced human practitioners can be very effective at interpreting photographic images, in a way that is difficult to duplicate with automated procedures (Franklin 2001). In some areas, keys have been developed to assist in the identification of tree species from air photos. For example, in the Dominican Republic, Hudson (1991)...

Limitations of the Hopfield Network Model

For example, suppose a Boltzmann machine is trained to recognize handwritten digits. It will subsequently rate new, never-before-seen digits as having a high probability of being digits whereas it will rate other data, such as photographs of faces, or random noise, as having a very low probability of being digits. The Boltzmann machine training algorithm also has an unlearning procedure similar to the one employed on Hopfield networks implicit in its operation, which minimizes the possibility that this 'spontaneous generalization' will incorrectly rank nondata vectors as being highly likely.

Mapping height biomass volume and growth

It is possible to estimate tree height from aerial photographs, for example by using parallax or shadows details of these methods are given by Stellingwerf and Hussin (1997). With respect to other sensors, lidar measurements have greatest potential for measurement of tree height. In general, satellite remote sensing has not been successfully used for this purpose, with a few exceptions (see, for example, Shettigara and Sumerling 1998).

Study Protocols And Technological Advances

Depending on study objectives, target species, and possible problems associated with the handling and marking process, it is not always necessary or desirable to apply marks to animals. For example, in some studies genetic or mineral markers in animal tissues, excreta, or blood, may allow for identification of individuals or populations. However, reliable identification using genetics is, at present, labor intensive and costly, can require recapture, and is largely untested under field conditions. As another alternative, it might be possible to use naturally occurring variable color markings or unique morphological features for recognition of individuals. For example, some amphibian species are amenable to visual recognition of individuals, and photographs or sketches can be used to record characteristics of individuals in a population (Forester 1977 Tilley 1977 Andreone 1986 Loafman 1991). Individual recognition via natural markings also has been used occasionally for fish (Nakano...

Picturing how long battery types last

Because a digital camera requires lots of power to pull off its digital magic, especially when its flash feature is used, battery makers often point to this device as a real-world measuring stick that most people can relate to. The following minitable provides a snapshot of rechargeable-battery capacity and longevity based on the number of pictures per charge that Rayovac estimates can typically be snapped per battery type. Most battery manufacturers recommend higher-capacity rechargeable batteries for digital cameras, whereas low-powered, low-drain gadgets such as TV remote control devices can run for many months on less pricey rechargeables.

Buying rechargeable batteries for less

Several specialty battery seller Web sites (see the earlier section Less common and wider-reaching chargers ) stock replacement-battery packs for your cellphone or smartphone, PDA, GPS tracker, cordless landline, digital camera and camcorder, answering machine, and lots of other gadgets.

Underwater observations

The aqualung is a tool that has many applications in marine biological investigations in shallow water. It makes possible many quantitative studies on distribution and growth of marine organisms by direct observation with minimal disturbance of their natural environment. The behaviour of marine animals can be recorded in their normal surroundings. Photographs can be taken of precisely selected areas and events and changes can be monitored. Divers can operate many types of underwater equipment which would otherwise have to be remotely controlled from the surface or might not be usable at all in particular localities (Kritzler and Eidemuller, 1972 Potts, 1976).

Underwater photography

Remote, automatically operating underwater cameras deployed on wires from research vessels have been in use since about the 1970s. Nowadays they are more often mounted on sledges, submersibles or on towed arrays of multi-instruments. They can also be mounted above baited traps. Modern cameras and lighting units provide high-resolution photographs. Cameras operating in the deep sea do not necessarily need a shutter due to the lack of light at such depths. A camera can be mounted on a sledge and towed across the sea-bed by the ship. In this case the camera is usually obliquely mounted and programmed to take photographs at set intervals. It is often easier to identify small animals from oblique, rather than straight down pictures. A recent exciting development is in free vehicle cameras that can be deployed on the sea-bed and left there, with no connection to the surface, for many months at a time. Their use in time-lapse photography at abyssal depths has been revolutionizing concepts of...

Underwater television and video

Television cameras can be mounted on towed underwater sledges along with still cameras. The television signals give a continuous record of the strip of sea bottom traversed by the sledge, and colour photographs show greater detail of particular areas (Holme and Barrett, 1977). If the distance travelled by the sledge is measured, then quantitative estimates of fauna can be made.

Measuring Connectivity

There are a variety of ways of quantifying the structural and functional connectivity of a landscape. Structural connectivity is usually quantified from aerial photographs, maps, or remote sensing data (geographic information systems (GIS) data, satellite imagery). Many metrics require that an image is rasterized by overlaying a grid of cells, with each cell having a defined size or grain. The impression of structural connectivity may vary with the grain size that is chosen, with coarser grains making it more likely that small gaps between habitat areas will be overlooked because large cells average across the gaps. Similarly, organisms may have a particular spatial scale at which they sample the environment and make decisions about movement. The grain of our sampling a landscape to measure connectivity should be sufficiently fine that it is congruent with the scale selected by the study organism. However, this is often not known prior to commencing a connectivity analysis and...

The Southern Bullkelps Durvillaea Antarctica and D willana

FIGURE 3.1 The morphology of Durvillaea antarctica is highly dependent on wave exposure. (A) At comparatively sheltered sites, the blade becomes broad and undulating. (B) If wave exposure is more severe, the blade is subdivided into many whip-like thongs. The overall length of the blade is approximately 5 to 7 m in both photographs. FIGURE 3.1 The morphology of Durvillaea antarctica is highly dependent on wave exposure. (A) At comparatively sheltered sites, the blade becomes broad and undulating. (B) If wave exposure is more severe, the blade is subdivided into many whip-like thongs. The overall length of the blade is approximately 5 to 7 m in both photographs.

Stratified random sampling

In this approach, the forest to be surveyed is first divided into relatively homogeneous areas (or strata). Sample units are then randomly selected from each stratum (usually at least two from each), using the same approach as for simple random sampling. There are a number of key advantages to this approach. Forests are usually spatially heterogeneous, as a result of variation in environmental variables such as topography, soils, aspect, and altitude, as well as in patterns of natural disturbance and previous management. This variation can often be detected on aerial photographs or during preliminary field surveys. Strata can therefore be defined on the basis of such information, in a way that is relevant to the objectives of the survey. For example, it may be known that in different parts of the forest the stands are dominated by different tree species because of variation in soil conditions and drainage. In this case, if the objective is to assess stand structure in each of the...

Mechanisms of Dispersal

To illustrate the spreading from local populations to wider surroundings, aerial photographs can be explored (Mullerova et al., 2005). Diaspore output of H. mantegazzianum populations can be calculated and evaluated by using additional data from experiments running in the sites analysed (Krinke et al., 2005 Perglova et al., Chapter 4, this volume Pergl et al., Chapter 6, this volume). Density of flowering plants as recorded from aerial photographs varied around 1.76 plants per m2 at an average site (Mullerova et al., 2005) and this value corresponds reasonably well to that recorded in permanent plots in the field (J. Pergl et al., unpublished data). For the site harbouring the largest population of H. mantegazzianum (see Perglova et al., Chapter 4, this volume, for the size of populations in individual sites), 14,164 flowering plants were estimated to be present from aerial photographs (Fig. 3.4). Given the mean fecundity of 20,500 fruits per plant in the study area (see Perglov et...

Resource Consumer Relationships Trophic Interactions

Figure 13 Extreme, 30-fold differences of plant growth on a rocky desert slope during (a) a dry (precipitation 40 mm, NPP 0.031 ha-1 yr-1) and (b) an extremely wet year (193 mm, 0.871 ha-1 yr-1). Northern Dead Sea, Palestine, March 1991 and March 1992. Photographs by C. Holzapfel. Figure 13 Extreme, 30-fold differences of plant growth on a rocky desert slope during (a) a dry (precipitation 40 mm, NPP 0.031 ha-1 yr-1) and (b) an extremely wet year (193 mm, 0.871 ha-1 yr-1). Northern Dead Sea, Palestine, March 1991 and March 1992. Photographs by C. Holzapfel.

Using a compass and measuring distance

Sample location can be determined by using a hand compass to identify direction and by pacing to estimate distance. If using this method, it is helpful to calibrate the length of your stride over different terrain, by measuring the number of paces required to cover a set distance marked out with a measuring tape or marker poles. When performed by experienced practitioners, this method can be astonishingly accurate. I once accompanied a forest manager in Belize who managed to precisely relocate a sample plot, abandoned more than 50 years previously, after a couple of hours' walking through dense rainforest with only a compass and his carefully calibrated paces by which to navigate. Instruments such as pedometers are also available that can be used to measure distance. A sketch map, or better still an accurate map of forest stands, can be of great help in relocating sample locations in the future. Photographs can also help in this respect. Field notes on the location and orientation of...

IPods Printers Hard Drives and Other Connected Devices

In Chapterl, I explain how leaving cellphone chargers and other devices plugged in when you're not using them wastes energy. The same explanation holds true for your Mac or Windows computer Leaving a fully charged iPod, iPhone, cellphone, digital camera, or most any other rechargeable device plugged in wastes energy. Although a few gadgets have smart charging sensors to turn themselves off, most don't yet. Make a habit of plugging rechargeable gadgets into your computer only when they need charging or when you intend to use them such as when you want to sync your iPod with your MP3 music or movies using iTunes, or import pictures from your digital camera to Windows Photo Gallery and then unplug them when you're done.

Hemispherical photography

Hemispherical or 'fish-eye' photography has a long history of use in plant ecology, dating back to the pioneering efforts of Anderson (1964), Becker (1971), and Evans and Coombe (1959). As a result of the development of high-resolution digital cameras and advances in image-processing software, there has been a recent renewal of interest in this method (Breda 2003). The technique is described in detail by Cannell and Grace (1993) and Rich (1989, 1990), and examples of its application are provided by Rich etal. (1993) and Whitmore etal. (1993). Fig. 4.4 The HemiView system used for taking hemispherical photographs of forest canopies. The system comprises a 180 fisheye lens with a high resolution digital camera, mounted in a self-levelling camera mount to ensure that it is held horizontally. (Photo courtesy of Delta-T Devices Ltd.) Fig. 4.4 The HemiView system used for taking hemispherical photographs of forest canopies. The system comprises a 180 fisheye lens with a high resolution...

Preservation And Identification

An information sheet on collecting, preserving, histo-logical preparation and lists of characters used for identification of sponges can be found on the web (see Additional reading). Collection of sponges within the Marine Park requires a permit and should also be undertaken with care (both for the sponge and the collector), owing to the often fragile nature of many specimens that disintegrate upon collection, and the sharp spicules and toxic mucus chemicals that may injure the collector. Underwater and or on-deck photographs of living specimens are highly recommended given that body shape and colouration may change dramatically following preservation. Freezing specimens prior to their preservation may be useful to fix soluble pigments in colourful species. Sponges are generally preserved separately in 70-80 ethanol, with care taken to prevent leaching of pigments between samples, particularly those with aerophobic pigments that change from yellow to blue and may stain entire...

Permanent sample plots

Permanent sample plots (PSPs) are commonly employed to evaluate forest changes over time, enabling repeated measures to be made on the same individual trees. The locations of PSPs can be determined with a GPS (see section 3.4.2). Topographic maps and aerial photographs are also a useful aid to relocating sample plots. Information useful to relocating the plot should be recorded, including the distances and bearings of approach lines (determined using a compass) and reference points or landmarks. It is very important to collect and properly archive detailed information that will enable the plot to be relocated in the future, as it may be that attempts will be made to resurvey the plot many years hence.

Coral Reef Ecohydrology Model

Figure 3 (a) The ecology submodel for tropical Darwin Harbour, Australia. SSC, suspended solid concentration N, nutrients P, phytoplankton (two dominant species with different turnover rates) Z, zooplankton (two dominant species with different preys and turnover rates) D, detritus S, detritivores ZF, zooplanktivorous fish CF, carnivorous fish. The mangrove swamp is modeled as a source of detritus as well as a source of young detritivores and fish (thick broken arrows). At death all organisms become detritus (thin broken arrows). (b) Photographs in Darwin Harbour of pristine mangroves in traditional Aboriginal land on the west bank (left), aquaculture industries encroaching in mangroves in the southern region (middle), urbanization and port development on the east bank removing all natural habitats (right). Figure 3 (a) The ecology submodel for tropical Darwin Harbour, Australia. SSC, suspended solid concentration N, nutrients P, phytoplankton (two dominant species with different...

Landuse Changes as Drivers of Invasion

Comparison of current and historical aerial photographs of the 20 study areas in Germany indicated that landscapes with H. mantegazzianum have undergone considerable changes during the last 50 years (1950s to approx. 2000). The area covered by agricultural land (arable fields, managed grasslands) decreased dramatically over this period, while that covered by forests increased (Fig. 8.6). Therefore, the predominant trend of land-cover changes in the study areas has been abandonment of agricultural land and development of woodlands, which were partly planted but mostly developed through natural colonization and succession. Succession on former agricultural land determined the dynamics of habitats available for invasion by H. mantegazzianum. Table 8.3. Habitat types for H. mantegazzianum mapped from aerial photographs from 20 study areas in Germany. Affinity to particular habitat types was assessed using the electivity index E (r- p) (r + p) (Ivlev, 1961), where r is the proportion of...

Archaic Period Subsistence And Settlement Data

Relative to other early sites in the region, they are highly visible in aerial photographs because they are periodically cleared and used in a variety of ways by people living in the littoral zone today. Excavations at these shellmounds indicate that they consist of densely packed layers of marsh clam shell (Poly-mesoda radiata) dating to the aceramic Archaic Period, with an overlying stratum of dark soil containing artifacts, principally ceramics, from later time periods. The Archaic Period deposits are distinctively bedded, with alternating burned and unburned layers of marsh clam shell, that we have interpreted as representing periodic use, rather than continual settlement (Kennett and Voorhies 1996 Michaels and Voorhies 1999 Voorhies 2004). This interpretation is also supported by the general absence of domestic features such as house floors and formal hearths,5 a very low diversity of tools, faunal assemblages showing an intensive focus on shallow water...

Multiple attacks may provide a different kind of refuge

The parasitoid Nasionia vitrepennis is solitary and attacks a variety of hosts (shown here are pupae of Phormia regina). However, sometimes more than one egg is laid in a host, in which case larval competition of the parasitoids occurs. Photographs compliments of Robert Lalonde, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus. Figure 4.8. The parasitoid Nasionia vitrepennis is solitary and attacks a variety of hosts (shown here are pupae of Phormia regina). However, sometimes more than one egg is laid in a host, in which case larval competition of the parasitoids occurs. Photographs compliments of Robert Lalonde, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus.

Stochastic matrix models and succession

Other studies have looked at successional transitions between woodland and other types of vegetation. For example, Callaway and Davis (1993) used aerial photographs to measure transition rates between grassland, coastal sage scrub, chaparral and oak woodland and their relationship to burning Table 4.3 The percentage of vegetation type from aerial photographs in 1947 and 1989 in central coastal California. Fig. 4.4 Annual transition rates among plant communities in (a) burned plots (n 53) and (b) unburned plots (n 78) as determined from changes in vegetation between 1947 and 1989 shown on aerial photographs. The numbers in the boxes represent the probabilities that a given community will stay the same (from year to year) whereas the numbers on the arrows estimate the probability that a community will change in the indicated direction. Fig. 4.4 Annual transition rates among plant communities in (a) burned plots (n 53) and (b) unburned plots (n 78) as determined from changes in...

The nature of vegetation change in elephant habitats

Scientific accounts of elephant damage to vegetation emerged during the 1960s. Comparing aerial photographs of Murchison (Kabalega) Falls National Park in Uganda taken in 1932 and again in 1956, Hal Buechner and H. C. Dawkins estimated in a 1961 publication that the tree population in the park had roughly halved during this period. There was, however, considerable spatial variation in the extent of decline of trees. The work at Murchison Falls was carried forward by Richard Laws and his team. Based on aerial photographic transects in areas of significant habitat change, they observed that densities of trees and bushes were low inside the park, but much higher outside. Often, an abrupt change in vegetation density coincided with the park boundary. In

Analysis of the Tiger Camera Trapping Data

Camera trapping is now widely used to study carnivore populations that can be distinguished by stripe or spotting patterns (O'Brien et al., 2003 Trolle and Kery, 2003 Wallace et al., 2003 Karanth et al., 2004 Kawanishi and Sunquist, 2004 Silver et al., 2004 Wegge et al., 2004 Trolle and Kery, 2005 Soisalo and Cavalcanti, 2006). We provide an analysis of the tiger camera trapping data that was introduced in Chapter 5. The analysis used here follows closely to that presented in Royle et al. (2008). These data are from surveys of tigers in the Nagarahole reserve in the state of Karnataka, southwestern India. Tiger stripe patterns are unique, and individuals are readily identified from photographs. This population has been studied via camera trap methods by Karanth and associates since 1991 (e.g., Karanth (1995) Karanth and Nichols (1998) Karanth et al. (2006)). The data used here were

Ideas Contributing to a New Human Ecology

As the Apollo astronauts approached the moon, they relayed images back to Earth unlike anything previously seen. The hypnotic pictures of the moon riveted our attention, of course, but the photographs of the blue-green orb of Earth were perhaps even more profound. Continents and water bodies were clearly visible beneath swirls of clouds, but borders had disappeared (Figure 1). No longer would we see Earth in the manner of the little globes in our classrooms. NASA continues to produce images of the planet, as do other governmental and private remote-sensing groups. In fact, NASA broadcasts continual images of our planet on its own television network. The use of GIS and remote-sensing technologies has spread rapidly among scientists during the past few decades. A geologist can overlay a map of bedrock on an aerial photograph to determine where a fault line intersects with settlement. Additional technologies likely will open more possibilities. For example, visualization techniques...

Implications for forest management

After the timber extractors have finished, they leave roads into the forest. These provide access for hunters of large mammals and birds, and also for people to move in to clear the forest for farming. Chatelain, Gautier and Spichinger (1996) used satellite photographs to show how this led to deforestation in southwestern Cote d'lvoire. The area was formerly tropical forest, sparsely inhabited by people, who were carrying out shifting cultivation, and was virtually inaccessible to outsiders until a road was built through it in 1968. However, it was not until two sawmills were built in 1977-80 and extensive timber felling started that there was a major influx of people. They used the side roads left by the timber extractors, and much clearance of the forest for farming clearly visible on the satellite photographs took place.

Relevant Websites

Http www.naturescalendar.org.uk - UK Phenology Network. http ecoinformatics.uvm.edu - The University of Vermont Ecoinformatics Collaboratory at the Gund Intitute for Ecological Economics.http www.flickr.com - Flickr. http www.w3.org - World Wide Web Consortium. 2004. Web Services Architecture. W3C Working Group Note.

Acacia woodlands oscillations and multiple stable states in the Serengeti Mara

The various studies on decline of woodlands in the Serengeti also spurred efforts to model the dynamics of the vegetation in relation to fire and mammalian herbivores. Mike Norton-Griffiths took a landscape approach to modeling the changes in the Serengeti. He began by studying patterns of changes in woodland density. He based the study on aerial photographs at different scales and coverage of the park between 1958 and 1972, annual extent of fire during 1963-1972, densities of 13 species of mammals, including elephants, on a seasonal basis between August 1969 and July 1972, and data on climate across the park. There were considerable spatial differences in the loss of woodlands the higher rainfall regions of the north ( dry subhumid woodlands ) lost 26 of their cover density during 1962-1972 compared to only 7 loss in the central semiarid acacia woodlands. A statistical multiple regression analysis using square grids of 100 km2 and six variables relating to climate, fire, and elephant...

Baylis Eco Media Player

Winding the Eco Media Player for one minute can provide you with up to 45 minutes of play time to listen to music or FM radio, watch video, or flip through digital photos. The windup gizmo, shown in Figure 11-8, is also a flashlight, recorder, backup device, and emergency mobile phone charger. (Now, that's what I call a multiple-personality product )

Evolving Perspectives in Landscape Ecology

Contemporary landscape ecology is characterized by a flux of concepts and perspectives that reflect the differences in the origins of ideas and the ways of thinking, both of which are shaped by physical and cultural landscapes. The term 'landscape ecology' was coined in 1939 by the German geographer, Carl Troll, who was inspired by the spatial patterning of landscapes revealed in aerial photographs and the ecosystem concept developed in 1935 by the British ecologist, Arthur Tansley. Troll saw the need for combining the more structurally oriented geographical approach with the more functionally centered ecosystem approach, in order to allow for geography to acquire ecological knowledge of land units and for ecology to expand its analysis from local sites to larger regions. Thus, he defined landscape ecology as the study of the relationship between biological communities and their environment in a landscape mosaic on various spatial scales. At the same time, Troll also emphasized the

Indirect optical method

Hemispherical canopy photography acquires photographs through a hemispherical (fisheye) lens from beneath the canopy (oriented towards zenith) or placed above the canopy looking downward. Hemispherical photographs show a complete view of all sky directions, with the zenith in the center of the image and the horizons at the edges (Figure 3). Traditionally, analog hemispherical photography is used to determine LAI. Digital cameras are available now with a very large number of pixels and high radiometric image quality.

Principles Of Landscape Management

As argued by Noss (1995), the management of species si te by site or ecosystems species by species is not a promising approach. Landscape ecology considers sites not in isolation from each other, and recognizes that scaled investigations are definitely the most intriguing and powerful approach to understanding complexity (Haber 1990). In fact, homogeneity and heterogeneity are two different ways of seeing the environment. Homogeneity often refers to the quality of adjacent patches, as when distinguishing prairie from forest using a satellite image classification, but if we look just at the prairie level, using aerial photographs for example, this environment appears heterogeneous.

Model evaluation and adaptive management

As an example of a long-term data set we shall consider the census data on migratory wildebeest in Serengeti National Park illustrated in Fig. 8.7. Population estimates in this system date back to the early 1960s, when the Serengeti Research Institute was first established. It was recognized early that aerial counting was perhaps the best way to monitor the broad expanses of savanna grasslands and broadleaf woodlands that comprise Serengeti National Park. Counting methods were established early, with little deviation over the years despite different observers and technological changes in aircraft and navigation equipment. Serengeti wildlife ecologists used a stratified aerial count design, with photographs taken at known altitude used to count individuals in the center of wildebeest aggregations and visual counts made in areas with lower numbers of animals.

Mapping of broad habitat types

Mapped data on the distribution of vegetation communities is valuable for many types of studies. Maps are usually required for large areas, so detailed descriptions of small quadrats over the entire area are not practical. Instead, the researcher may make detailed descriptions of a few representative samples of particular habitat types in order to identify their defining characteristics, such as tree density or species composition. It is essential to devise and document precise definitions, for example, when does savannah become grassland or woodland. Without precise definitions it is impossible to relate to other studies or repeat to document changes. With this information it is then often possible to walk around the study area mapping the boundaries of patches of particular habitats. Recording habitat edges using a GPS makes this much easier. Having an aerial photograph or high resolution satellite image of the study area is also useful. If a print of the image is taken into the...

Defining the question

One answer to this chapter's question is straightforward and based on high-school physics. The early SCUBA divers quickly discovered that if they took underwater colour photographs, even if they were only a few metres down, their pictures had a strong blue cast to them. However, if they illuminated their subjects with a flash, then a more colourful world emerged in their pictures especially if they were photographing the rich diversity of highly coloured fish that can be found in some parts of the tropics.2 The reason for the blueness is that as sunlight passes through water the colours of the spectrum are absorbed at different rates, with the long wavelengths (e.g. red) absorbed first and the higher-energy shorter wavelengths (e.g. blue) penetrating deeper into the depths. It follows that underwater available light is predominantly blue and that any light reflected from within the water body is more likely to be from the bluer end of the spectrum of visible light. So, light coming...

Negative Binomial GAM and GAMM to Analyse Amphibian Roadkills

The road was inspected for amphibian roadkills every two weeks between March 1995 and March 1997. Surveys were made by a car slowly (10-20 km per hour) driving along the road on the hard-shoulder. Each animal found dead was identified to species level, whenever possible, and its geographic location, on UTM coordinates, was determined with help of detailed cartography (1 2000) of horizontal and vertical road profiles and aerial photographs. All carcasses were removed from the road to avoid double counting. Detailed digital maps of land use were made through interpretation of aerial photographs corrected with field observations. Explanatory variables were identified from these maps using a Geographic Information System. A list with all available explanatory variables and the abbreviations used is given in Table 16.1.

Tools To Study Succession

Repeat ground photography has a limited and oblique field of view, and historical photographs usually portray anthropogenic manipulation of landscapes. These characteristics seriously limit the usefulness of repeat photography for determining changes in the distribution of species (Bahre 1991). Repeat aerial photography is also constrained by the date of the earliest photographs. In addition, extensive coverage of aerial photographs was not available until after broad-scale ecosystem changes had already occurred.

Edge characteristics and effects

Variation in forest structure and composition can most readily be assessed by using plots or transects placed across habitat edges, and by then employing the methods used for assessing these variables described in Chapter 3. Remote sensing methods such as aerial photographs can also be used to provide descriptions of edge characteristics. Forest edges can be described by various attributes such as length, width, shape, vertical, and horizontal structure, density, or interior to edge boundary. Brandli et al. (1995) describe an assessment procedure for the forest edge that was operationally applied in the second Swiss national forest inventory (NFI). In the Swiss NFI, sample plots are distributed in a systematic grid. Whenever a forest margin lies within 25 m of the centre of a field plot, an assessment of the forest margin is conducted. A 50 m line forms the basis for the forest edge assessment. Along the transect, floristic diversity, habitat features (especially for birds and...

Plant Community Dynamics

Figure 3 Unburned and burned chaparral in Santa Barbara County, CA, USA. Both photographs were taken of the same area but separated by 32 years. (a) Typical unburned chaparral in 2003 consisting of chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), California lilacs (Ceanothus spp.), and toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia). (b) Burned chaparral following an intense fire in 1971. The utility pole serves as a reference point. The photographs indicate the rapid recovery of the vegetation following fire. Figure 3 Unburned and burned chaparral in Santa Barbara County, CA, USA. Both photographs were taken of the same area but separated by 32 years. (a) Typical unburned chaparral in 2003 consisting of chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), California lilacs (Ceanothus spp.), and toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia). (b) Burned chaparral following an intense fire in 1971. The utility pole serves as a reference point. The photographs indicate the rapid recovery of the vegetation following fire.

Weasels And Wild Birds

With a set of four clear photographs of a stoat raiding a snow bunting nest on Devon Island in July 1969. The stoat was shown leaving the nest entrance with a chick in its jaws at 0755, 0805, 0851, and 1436 hours, and in the early afternoon of the same day a group of at least four weasels was observed in the vicinity, one of which was carrying a young bunting from this nest.

Vibratory Communication i Psylloidea Hemiptera

Almost at the same time, Taylor (1962) studied both sexes of some species of Hyalinaspis. He illustrated corrugations on axillary cords of the meso- and metascutellum of the thorax and a hard flange at the base of the second anal veins of both wings. He suggested that these could be drawn over the axillary cords during stridulatory movements. Later Taylor (1985) made more detailed investigations of structures on the wings and scutellum using the scanning electron microscope. He presented SEM photographs and drawings of rows of teeth on the axillary cords of the meso- and metascutellum and corresponding rows of teeth under the second anal vein of both pairs of wings in two species of Scheidotrioza (Triozidae). Also, probable wing movements during stridulation were described. Nevertheless, no sounds were recorded and the structures described were referred to as possible stridulatory organs .

What Is Remote Sensing

A simple example of a remote-sensing instrument is a photographic or digital camera. A camera records energy in the form of light that is reflected from a surface to form an image. Most photographic cameras record visible light so that when we look at the photograph the image resembles the feature that was photographed. More sophisticated remote-sensing instruments are able to record energy outside of the range of visible light. Data from remote-sensing instruments can be recorded as images or, in the case of lidar, a series of point data.

Brief History of Remote Sensing

For our purposes we will begin the history of remote sensing with the invention ofthe photographic camera in the early nineteenth century. In the 1840s photographs were taken from cameras secured to tethered balloons for purposes of topographic mapping. For the next 100 years or so camera technology improved but the major advances were in the platforms used to hold the camera systems. At first people experimented with platforms such as kites, rockets, and even pigeons. A major step forward was made with the invention ofthe airplane and the next leap occurred when cameras could be mounted

Parafluvial and Orthofluvial Ponds

Figure 3 Photographs of riparian wetlands (Tenente Amaral Stream, Mato Grosso, Brazil) (a) Stream channel with hygropetric zone (foreground) and floodplain forest (background), (b) Rockpool carved into the sandstone bedrock, (c) moist organic soil colonized by many aquatic invertebrate taxa. Leaf litter was removed. All photographs by K. M. Wantzen. Figure 3 Photographs of riparian wetlands (Tenente Amaral Stream, Mato Grosso, Brazil) (a) Stream channel with hygropetric zone (foreground) and floodplain forest (background), (b) Rockpool carved into the sandstone bedrock, (c) moist organic soil colonized by many aquatic invertebrate taxa. Leaf litter was removed. All photographs by K. M. Wantzen.

Identifying Marine Mammals

Identifying marine mammals at sea is extremely difficult, especially if only a small portion of an animal's body is seen fleetingly as it surfaces to breathe. High-quality photographs of an animal breaching (leaping from the water) or underwater with most or all of the body in the picture, or of stranded animals (alive or dead) are an important aid to identification and can be used by researchers to identify species and even individuals of some species. Sketches are also helpful.

Charge Your Gadgets the Green

Choosing green portable power chargers and extenders is the ecofriendlier alternative to tapping into the wall outlet to recharge gadgets. What makes these gadgets green Some use solar or wind power to recharge your gadgets. For instance, the Iqua SUN solar Bluetooth headset recharges itself when exposed to daylight, and the HY Mini wind-powered charger can be strapped to your arm or bicycle to recharge your mobile phone, digital camera, or other portable gadget.

What are the Attributes of an Aggressive Invader and How Does Heracleum mantegazzianum Compare with Other Invasive

For any species, there are several assumptions that need to be met if it is to be viewed as an aggressive invader. The first assumption is the capability of creating large and dominant stands. Although in Central Europe two-thirds of H. mantegazzianum records relate to plants scattered in invaded vegetation without being dominant (see Thiele et al., Chapter 8, this volume), it often forms dominant stands with a high cover (Fig. 19.1). Further, once suitable environmental conditions are met and the species starts to dominate the invaded vegetation, the stands can be very extensive. In the Slavkovsky les study area, Czech Republic (see Perglova et al., Chapter 4, this volume), on the basis of aerial photographs it is estimated that in ten 60-ha landscape sections, populations of H. mantegazzianum at present completely cover 41.9 ha (see Pysek et al., 2005 Chapter 3, this volume). This represents 7 of the total land in the region. These figures can be related to biomass, using the data...

The Hoverfly Mimics 51 Resemblance

Virtually all the model identifications made by the authors concerned were purely on the basis of visual similarity according to our own human perception, with no experimental or any other kind of evidence. Of course, in natural circumstances predators are required to deal with potential prey in a wide variety of circumstances, including as fast-moving evasive insects, and some potential prey represent a significant threat to well being. Identifications based upon our own perceptions may not correspond to the perceptual confusions between models and mimics generated by the eyes of predators, and this might distort our view of biological reality. One element that has been highlighted is the UV-component of colour patterns (Cuthill and Bennett, 1993 Church et al., 2004), invisible to mammalian predators, but possibly conspicuous to UV-sensitive birds or insects. A priori an unsuspected and different UV-component to the colour pattern is unlikely in Diptera, since their black colours are...

Frequency of gap formation

The influence of the frequency of gap formation was studied in southern California by Sousa (1979a, 1979b), in an intertidal algal community associated with boulders of various sizes. Wave action disturbs small boulders more often than large ones. Using a sequence of photographs, Sousa estimated the probability that a given boulder would be moved during the course of 1 month. A class of mainly small boulders (which required a force of less than 49 Newtons to move them) had a monthly probability of movement of 42 . An intermediate class (which required a force of 50-294 N) had a much smaller monthly probability of movement,

Biomass and productivity

Hubbard Brook Nutrient Cycling

Above is a view of Watershed 2 and below is a view of Watershed 2, 4 and 5 (from left to right). Descriptions of the watersheds are given above. (Photographs courtesy of USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.) Figure 8.1 Hubbard Brook. Above is a view of Watershed 2 and below is a view of Watershed 2, 4 and 5 (from left to right). Descriptions of the watersheds are given above. (Photographs courtesy of USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.)

Changes in species diversity over time

Animals Change Over Time

Figure 6.6 Four saprophytic indicators for bulky beech substrata. (a) Woolly oyster Hohenbuehelia mastrucata, a gill fungus without a stem. Species of this genus capture and prey on nematode worms. (b) Fox cockleshell Lentinellus vulpinus. (c) Spongy mazegill Spongipellis delectans, with its strikingly patterned lower surfaces. (d) Coral tooth Hericium coralloides, whose fruit-bodies are irregular masses of white branches bearing combs of downward-pointing spines beneath. (Photographs by Martyn Ainsworth.) Figure 6.6 Four saprophytic indicators for bulky beech substrata. (a) Woolly oyster Hohenbuehelia mastrucata, a gill fungus without a stem. Species of this genus capture and prey on nematode worms. (b) Fox cockleshell Lentinellus vulpinus. (c) Spongy mazegill Spongipellis delectans, with its strikingly patterned lower surfaces. (d) Coral tooth Hericium coralloides, whose fruit-bodies are irregular masses of white branches bearing combs of downward-pointing spines beneath....

Mycelia Foraging Between Resources Distributed Heterogeneously In Space And Time

Figure 2 Patterns of mycelial outgrowth of four cord-forming basidiomycota across compacted soil in 24 x 24 cm trays from x cm (a-e) and y cm (f) Beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood inocula. (a) Coprinus picaceus, (b) Hypholoma fasciculare, (c) Phallus impudicus, (d) Resinicium bicolor and (e and f) Phanerochaete velutina. Digital images (a)-(d) courtesy Alaa Alawi, and digital images (e) and (f) from photographs taken by Rory Bolton. Figure 2 Patterns of mycelial outgrowth of four cord-forming basidiomycota across compacted soil in 24 x 24 cm trays from x cm (a-e) and y cm (f) Beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood inocula. (a) Coprinus picaceus, (b) Hypholoma fasciculare, (c) Phallus impudicus, (d) Resinicium bicolor and (e and f) Phanerochaete velutina. Digital images (a)-(d) courtesy Alaa Alawi, and digital images (e) and (f) from photographs taken by Rory Bolton. Figure 3 Reallocation of mycelial biomass of Phanerochaete velutina following colonization of new wood resources. (a-c) Extending from...

Box 211 Techniques Used To Collect Preserve And Investigate Octocoral Colonies

Heliopora Coerulea Close

When taxonomic identification is attempted, a photograph showing the entire colony and its growth form is advantageous, and close-ups of details of the surface and polyp structures are useful for reference. Although with practice it is possible to identify a number of octocorals to genus level underwater or from photographs, it is rare that they can be identified to species level because a compound microscope is needed to investigate sclerites in detail. Most soft corals have different sclerites in the upper polyp-bearing surface of the colony (lobes, branches), the interior of the polyp region, the surface and interior of the base, and within the polyps. The arrangement of the sclerites within the polyps and polyp tentacles can also be informative as it can vary widely between species. For a full diagnosis, until a satisfactory level of field confidence is achieved, it is therefore necessary to collect a sample with all of the main colony regions present. Note that a sampling permit...

Box 91 Influence of humans on the forests of Crete and Cyprus

Cyprus Mediterranean Forests

Figure 9.3 (a) Cypress Cupressus sempervirens and stone ( umbrella) pine Pinus pinea at Mona Preveli monastery, south-west Crete. Lower branches of the cypress have been trimmed this tree and the native pines are now of limited distribution on the island. (b) Riverside Cretan palm Phoenix theophrastii and tamarisk Tamarix forest with giant reed Arundo donax near Mona Preveli on the south-west coast of Crete. (Photographs by John R. Packham.) Figure 9.3 (a) Cypress Cupressus sempervirens and stone ( umbrella) pine Pinus pinea at Mona Preveli monastery, south-west Crete. Lower branches of the cypress have been trimmed this tree and the native pines are now of limited distribution on the island. (b) Riverside Cretan palm Phoenix theophrastii and tamarisk Tamarix forest with giant reed Arundo donax near Mona Preveli on the south-west coast of Crete. (Photographs by John R. Packham.)

Sitespecific Information

Existing data on site history can provide useful information on potential causes and sources of groundwater contamination. Data that should be collected include old maps and aerial photographs, interviews with present and former employees at the plant site, records of operations, records of product losses and spills, waste disposal practices, and the list of contaminants generated over the operating history of the site. The inventory must also include a history of the raw materials used and wastes disposed of over the years as industrial processes changed. Particular attention should be paid to potential sources of ground-water contamination such as locations of abandoned and

Insect Attacks on Southern Pines

Of the pine component in the old-growth southern forest enabled more than an adequate amount of moisture, nutrients, and sunlight to sustain tree vigor. The trees were overmature and growth was slow, a typical stand probably numbering fewer than 10 or 20 trees per acre. The classical stands seen in historical photo collections were exceptions it is the fact that they were exceptions when the pictures were taken that made the photographs worth saving.

Tusks parasites handicaps and sexual selection

The considerable variation in tusk length observed within an Asian elephant population provided the basis for Watve and I to test the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on intensity of male ornamentation and parasite loads. We looked at the elephants of Mudumalai Sanctuary in southern India. We used simple field techniques for aging male elephants and for measuring their tusk lengths. While age of the animal was estimated from its shoulder height, degree of ear folding, and morphology, the tusk lengths were measured from photographs of side profiles. We had to control for differences in tusk length due to age. For this, we constructed a standard growth curve of tusk length with age (obtained from a relationship of tusk girth versus tusk length in 158 museum specimens). The measured tusk length of a wild bull was subtracted from the average tusk length for that given age, and this deviation from the average was used in further analysis.

Experimental Studies of Condition Dependence in Insect Sexual Traits

Male stalk-eyed flies, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, fight (left) in order to monopolize nocturnal roosting sites containing females (right). The winners usually have the largest eyespan and are preferred as mates by females. In line with the handicap theory, male eyespan is highly condition-dependent, much more so that other traits (see text for details). (Photographs by S. Cotton.) Fig. 2.1. Male stalk-eyed flies, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, fight (left) in order to monopolize nocturnal roosting sites containing females (right). The winners usually have the largest eyespan and are preferred as mates by females. In line with the handicap theory, male eyespan is highly condition-dependent, much more so that other traits (see text for details). (Photographs by S. Cotton.)

The diversity of parasites

Figure 12.1 Plant and animal micro- and macroparasites. (a) An animal microparasite particles of the Plodia interpunctella granulovirus (each within its protein coat) within a cell of their insect host. (b) A plant microparasite 'club-root disease' of crucifers caused by multiplication of Plasmodiophora brassicae. (c) An animal macroparasite a tapeworm. (d) A plant macroparasite powdery mildew lesions. Reproduced by permission of (a) Dr Caroline Griffiths (b) Holt Studios Nigel Cattlin (c) Andrew Syred Science Photo Library and (d) Geoff Kidd Science Photo Library. Figure 12.1 Plant and animal micro- and macroparasites. (a) An animal microparasite particles of the Plodia interpunctella granulovirus (each within its protein coat) within a cell of their insect host. (b) A plant microparasite 'club-root disease' of crucifers caused by multiplication of Plasmodiophora brassicae. (c) An animal macroparasite a tapeworm. (d) A plant macroparasite powdery mildew lesions. Reproduced by...

Acknowledgements

We jointly thank Marc Kery and Beni Schmidt for their efforts at organizing our Zurich workshops (2006, 2007) on Hierarchical Models, and Jim Hines for developing the book website. The following colleagues provided helpful suggestions for improving one or more chapters of the manuscript Scott Boomer, Ian Fiske, Beth Gardner, Malay Ghosh, Tabitha Graves, Marc Kery, Jim Nichols, Beni Schmidt, Vivek Roy, Jim Saracco, Michael Schaub, Emily Silverman, Tom Stanley, Chris Wikle, Elise Zipkin. Thanks to Ian Fiske for the graphics in Chapter 9 and computing support. We thank our colleagues who provided data sets used in the book Beth Hahn (Redstart nest survival), Robin Jung (stream salamanders), Marc Kery and the Swiss Ornithological Institute (Swiss BBS data, Swiss butterfly data), Ullas Karanth (tigers), Mark Koneff (waterfowl), Cathy Langtimm (manatee counts), Jim Nichols (microtus), John Sauer (NA BBS), Kevin Young (lizards), Bill Zielinski (carnivores), Jim Saracco and Dave DeSante for...

Radiotracking

Because the locations determined in this way are accurate to within 20 m, the method can be used to gain precise assessments of a bird's home range at different seasons, as well as its migration routes as often as required. Used in conjunction with high-power satellite images or aerial photographs of the ground, a bird can be placed accurately within a landscape situated thousands of kilometres from the observer who is seated comfortably at home in front of a PC. Other sensors can be added to a PTT in order to measure other environmental variables, such as altitude of flight or ambient temperature, but they also add weight.

The Pancake Syndrome

Fig. 1.11 Mechanisms of cockroach defense against ants. (A) Chemical defense by Diploptera punctata. Pogonomyrmex badius is attacking the cockroach on the left, whose defensive glands have been removed. The intact cockroach on the right was also attacked by the ants, but it discharged a spray of quinones and repelled the attackers. The spray pattern is shown by indicator paper on which the cockroach is standing. From Eisner (1958). (B) Defense by conglobulation. Adult female of Perisphaerus semilunatus from Thailand, protected from attack by rolling up into a ball. From Roth (1981b). (C) Defense by adhesion. A flattened Capucina patula nymph protected from attack by hugging the substrate. The body of the cockroach is clearly seen through the lateral extensions of the tergites. All photographs courtesy of Thomas Eisner. Fig. 1.11 Mechanisms of cockroach defense against ants. (A) Chemical defense by Diploptera punctata. Pogonomyrmex badius is attacking the cockroach on the left, whose...

Aerial photography

Aerial photography has been widely used for assessment of forests for more than 50 years it therefore has the benefit of being a tried and tested technique (Lachowski et al. 2000). Black-and-white, colour, and infrared aerial photographs are routinely collected over many forest areas, and are used for forest mapping, assessment of forest condition, forest management planning, and conservation assessments (Figure 2.1). Despite the development of satellite technologies, aerial photographs are still the most common form of remote sensing used to assess and map forests, primarily because they can provide high-resolution images at relatively low cost, and are relatively easy to use. They are also flexible photographs are available at a range of scales, and can be produced by using a variety of different films, lenses, and cameras (Franklin 2001). The most significant advantage of aerial photographs Fig. 2.1 Aerial photograph of part of the New Forest National Park in southern England. Such...

Marine phytoplankton

Many of the phytoplankton species of the North Atlantic are described in detail in volumes by Lebour (1925, 1930) and Hendey (1964). There are many excellent photographs in Drebes (1974) although the text is in German. More recent, but less detailed accounts can be found in the student texts detailed at the end of this chapter.

T P Hughes

Reefs closest to the mainland or fringing populated high islands are more likely to be at risk than reefs on outer continental shelves or unpopulated oceanic atolls. For example, on the GBR inshore reefs generally have more human impacts than elsewhere (see Chapter 11). Nutrient and sediment runoff from farming activities on land have impacted many of the reefs closest to the mainland. The chemical signals in annual growth bands of century-old coral skeletons reveal a sharp increase in coastal runoff following the arrival of cattle and sheep and large-scale land clearing in the 19th century. Coastal development and recreational fishing have also significantly impacted nearshore reefs. Historical photographs of mainland reefs show vibrant stands of corals along the Queensland coast that are increasingly degraded today.

Counts In Israel

And from the early to the later part of each season, as wind and other conditions change. In autumn, birds enter northern Israel on a single narrow route, with 87 of all soaring birds encountered within a 20-km-wide strip, some 11-31 km in from the Mediterranean coast. For reasons not fully understood, some species fly along routes to the east or west of others. Surveillance radar photographs show

Nutrient Capture

Figure 2 Some fruit bodies of saprotrophic basidiomycota, illustrating a range of sizes and resources (a) the solitary Macrolepiota rhacodes with a coin size marker (20 mm diameter) (b) a fruit body of Marasmius setosus with the same coin size marker (c) even smaller Marasmius specimen on the petiole of a beech cupule (d) Collybia peronata on a pine cone (e) the decidedly caespitose Psathyrella multipedata (f) Terence Ingold posing with Fomes fomentarius on a beech tree in Knole Park, Sevenoaks, Kent, 1969 (see Ingold, 2002). Photographs (a)-(e) by David Moore of specimens collected by members of the mid-yorkshire fungus group at Harlow Carr Gardens. (See Colour Section)

Illumination

Different wavelengths of light do not penetrate equally. Infrared radiation penetrates least, being almost entirely absorbed within the top 2 m, and ultraviolet light is also rapidly absorbed. Within the visible spectrum, red light is absorbed first, much of it within the first 5 m. This is why underwater photographs taken without a flash have an overall bluish-green colour. In clear water the greatest penetration is by the blue-green region of the spectrum, while in more turbid conditions the penetration of blue rays is often reduced to a greater extent than that of the red-yellow wavelengths. This differential absorption of the solar spectrum partly accounts for the colour of the sea's surface by its effect on the spectral composition of reflected light. In bright sunlight, clear ocean water may appear very blue because the yellow and red rays are largely absorbed, and blue rays predominate in light reflected from below the surface. In more turbid coastal waters, their greener...

Scaling laws

Spherical shock wave front, R, are E, p, and the elapsed time, t. In terms of the basic scaling dimensions of mass, length, and time (M, L, T), these three independent variables have dimensions E ML2T 2, p ML 3, and t T R has dimensions R L. To get the scaling relation between R (dimension L) and t (dimension T), we eliminate M among E , p , and t to get L5 T2. This implies R t2 5 or a straight line with slope 1 when lnR is plotted against (2 5)lnt. Taylor used the data from a series of high-speed photographs of the fireball expanding over the test site in Nevada to verify this result, and then further used the y-axis intercept of this line to estimate E 1021 erg. He published this simple and elegant analysis in 1950, causing a furore among the military bureaucracy although the film was not classified, the energy-release figure was top secret (for a more detailed account, see Barenblatt, 1996).

Nest observations

Watching from a hide overlooking the nest can be useful. Excellent data on the diet of chicks can be obtained using nest cameras with an infrared beam fixed so the bird triggers the camera as it returns to the nest. This equipment is available commercially. For birds using nest boxes, the camera can be placed inside so that entering birds are photographed. The camera obviously needs a motordrive and some can be adapted to take long series of exposures (e.g. 250). Slide film is probably easiest for subsequent identification an alternative is to use a video. The camera can be hidden within a box and a car battery used as a power supply. If a clock is placed in view of the camera, then nest daily patterns and provisioning rates can be accessed. Many cameras can print the date and time of exposure onto every frame. A ruler can be placed at the same distance so that prey size can be estimated from the photographs. Alternatively the prey can be related to bill length. Combining data from...

Web Services

'Mashups' are more simple examples of bringing two or more independent services together. For example, mash-ups have been created that merge images from Flickr (http www.flickr.com) with the taxonomic hierarchy of University of Arizona's Tree of Life website. Similarly, the California Academy of Sciences has used the Google Earth interface to provide access to its extensive global collection of ant specimen data.

SEY VEVarYh

If our aim is to get the most precise estimate of Y as opposed to a precise estimate of each Yh, sampling intensity should be allocated between strata according to the expected standard deviation of sampled unit counts in each stratum. That requires a pilot survey or at least approximate knowledge of distribution and density gained on a previous survey. Often we have nothing more than aerial photographs or a vegetation map to give us some idea of the distribution of habitat, and only a knowledge of the animal's ecology to guide us in predicting which habitats will hold many animals and which will hold few. This scant information in fact is sufficient to allow an allocation of sampling effort between strata that will not be too far off the optimum. The important point to understand is that for almost all populations the standard deviation of counts on sampling units rises linearly with density. From that can be derived the rule of thumb that the number of sampling units put into a...

Disturbance

If studying disturbance is necessary to relate the level of disturbance to the ecology of the species. A major difficulty is that there are numerous categories, for example, bird of prey, car, tractor, hunter, person on horse, person walking, or person walking with dog. With numerous categories it is then difficult to relate the impact on the birds to any one category. One approach is to measure each separately but combine similar groups in the analysis. Disturbance is usually measured by either scan counts or focal counts. In scan counts the number of disturbers is counted in each of a series of the observer's fields of view as if a series of non-overlapping photographs had been taken. For example, by moving from field to field and recording the disturbance at the first instance at which the entire field can be seen. If individuals then arrive or leave they are ignored. Scan counts can be repeated, for example, by measuring the number of disturbers at snapshots every 10 min. In focal...

Identification

Information on bryozoans is scattered in monographs and scientific papers and there are very few popular guides (none for the GBR). However, the internet is becoming a good source of information. The best entry point, especially for photographs of Australian bryozoans, is http bryozoa.net Verified 21 March 2008 . The official website of the International Bryozoology Association is www.nhm.ac.uk hosted_sites iba Verified 21 March 2008 .

Scale and Ecosystems

A cross-scale examination of ecosystems leads to three observations. The first is that as the grain and extent of observation change, different objects (structures and processes) cover distinct scale ranges. For example, aerial photographs of forest stands cannot capture the detail of leaves (at smaller grains), nor spatial biome patterns (at larger extents). The second observation is that scalable processes and structures cover different extents in space and time. Some processes such as forest fires range from scales of a square meter to thousands of square kilometers. Other processes such as changes in carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere cover 20 or so orders of magnitude, from the cubic centimeters of cylinders in millions of internal combustion engines, to fossil-fuel-powered plants to regional-scale land clearing. The third observation is that ecological systems are comprised of self-organized processes that are not scale invariant that is, they are not self-similar...

Regional Information

A regional inventory of potential offsite sources of contamination can be developed through aerial photographs, land-use maps, and field inspections. Old aerial photographs are especially useful because they may be the only means of identifying abandoned facilities such as old landfills, lagoons, and industrial facilities. Land-use maps can identify unsewered residential areas that can be a potential source of contamination, especially where organic chemical septic tank cleaners have been used. Topographic maps can identify surface drainage patterns that can carry contaminants to the plant site and recharge the underlying groundwater system.

Masting

Infection Holes Hand Caused Insect

Figure 4.11 Four beech nuts damaged by larvae of the moth Cydia fagiglandana. A perfect exit hole caused by the departing adult moth is shown by the nut, bottom right. The other three show exit holes that have been enlarged by birds endeavouring to reach a larva, one of which is shown bottom left. Fungal mycelium is present on the two nuts on the right hand side. Note the millimetre scale. (Photographs by Malcolm Inman. From Packham and Hilton, 2002. Arboricultural Journal 26.) Figure 4.11 Four beech nuts damaged by larvae of the moth Cydia fagiglandana. A perfect exit hole caused by the departing adult moth is shown by the nut, bottom right. The other three show exit holes that have been enlarged by birds endeavouring to reach a larva, one of which is shown bottom left. Fungal mycelium is present on the two nuts on the right hand side. Note the millimetre scale. (Photographs by Malcolm Inman. From Packham and Hilton, 2002. Arboricultural Journal 26.)

Woody material

Populus Tremula Boom

275 million and 2 billion trees uprooted or damaged have been made, accounting for more than 4 billion board feet of timber (6.5 million cubic metres). The first picture shows the damage in 1938 at Harvard Forest, central Massachusetts and the second shows some of the glut of timber being stored in water in Tom Swamp, Harvard Forest (March 1939) to reduce rotting until it could be used. (Photographs courtesy of Harvard Forest Archives, Harvard University.)

Systematics

The discovery activity consists of the search for new kinds of organisms. Much of this activity takes the form of field expeditions, in which a variety of special techniques are employed to collect organisms and preserve specimens in a manner that allows for future study. Rare or endangered organisms are usually not collected, but are rather documented with photographs or other means. Preserved specimens are placed in collections, usually at recognized natural history museums or other research institutions where they are made available for study by experts. The community of systematic scholars is truly international, and experts on particular groups of organisms regularly visit these collections or request loans of specimens to study. A considerable amount of discovery activity also takes place in the collections themselves, when experts examine specimens and discover new organisms hidden among previously known organisms. This requires careful attention to the care and maintenance of...

Ecotourism

In South Africa there is increasing local involvement in big-game safaris and expanding economic development in parks and wildlife habitat preserves. Game parks and nature reserves are popular destinations for tourists, and ecotourism is the most rapidly expanding tourism category in South Africa. Tourism now accounts for an estimated 5 to 10 percent of the country's gross domestic product and employs more than 500,000 workers. More than 2.5 million foreign visitors are expected per year, nearly twice the number of guests a decade ago. One of the major tourist areas, Kruger National Park, reports more than 1 million bed-nights occupied annually. Visitors based in bush lodges or beach houses snorkel and scuba, hike and climb, fish and hunt game, take photographs of animals, watch whales and birds, and travel in jeeps, boats, and all-terrain vehicles.

Light and shade

Acer Leaf Damage

Aerial photographs make it possible to investigate long-term canopy dynamics over considerable periods indeed Fujita et al. (2003) have already done so over a period of 32 years in a 4-ha permanent plot in an old-growth evergreen broadleaved forest in the Tatera Forest Reserve, south-west Japan. This reserve is dominated by Japanese chinquapin Castanopsis cuspidata and the dawn isu tree Distylium racemosum at low altitudes and the Japanese evergreen oak Quercus acuta on the hills. In the low-altitude study plots of this truly primeval forest, canopy height varies between 20 and 30 m, while the diameter at breast height (dbh) of some trees exceeds a metre. Aerial photographs taken in 1966, 1983, 1993 and 1998 enabled the creation of digital elevation models on a 2.5 m grid of the canopy surface of a 10-ha area. This

Tree morphology

Morphology Tree Rings

Trees create their own microclimate under the canopy it is often darker, buffered against extreme temperature change and with a higher humidity. Different trees allow different amounts of light through the canopy due to variations in leaf density and degree of canopy shyness. This is also affected by the spacing of trees, influenced by soil conditions, water competition or external agents such as fire and wind. The percentage of sunlight that reaches the ground in summer can be as high as 20-50 in a birch wood, down to 2-5 under dense hardwoods such as beech, and even as little as 0.2 under a tropical rain forest. As a general rule of thumb, plants need 20 of full sunlight to grow maximally and at least 2 of sunlight for photosynthesis to match respiration needs (the compensation point). From this, it can be seen that forest interiors in summer are dark places for plants. We tend not to appreciate this because our eyes have irises that open to let more light in. The best way to see a...

Vagrancy

During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, virtually all recorded vagrants were shot and preserved as skins, some of which are still available for examination. The older records may well have been biased in favour of large and conspicuous species. Subsequently, binoculars, field guides and mist nets became available, many of the extreme rarities were trapped, examined and photographed in the hand, and nowadays field photographs and written descriptions by skilled observers have often proved sufficient to identify rare species unequivocally. The recent development of 'digiscoping' (digital photography through a telescope) has further helped, as has the increasing ability to record calls and produce sonograms for subsequent inspection. The use of the web and other means to advertise fresh sightings has also increased the numbers of observers able to see and photograph individual rarities. Little wonder that the annual totals of recorded vagrants have increased over the years,...

100 Photography Tips

100 Photography Tips

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