Index

Abiotic factors, 201

Abiotic pollination, 44

Acarina, 13

Acromyrmex, 128

Acuyo, 179

Aduncamide, 132

Aedes aegypti, 133

Agrobacterium rhizogenes, 151

Agua Buena, Coto Brus Province, 8

Alkaloids, 118

Alpha-pinene, 118

Amazon, 52, 84, 180, 185, 187, 188, 202 biogeography of, 85, 89, 90, 91, 93 flower morphology in, 191 phenology displacement in, 38 Ambates, 9

Ambates melanops, 21 Ambates scutiger, 21 Ambophily, 45, 51

American tropics, 183, 185, 189, 191, 194, 202 Amides, 3, 19, 20-21, 24, 34, 118-133 ecology of, 128-130 evolution of, 131-132 isolation and quantification of, 120-121 synthesis of, 121-127 Ananeae, 11

Andes, 164, 180, 185, 188,202 biogeography of, 84, 85, 86, 89, 90-91, 93 dispersal ecology in, 74, 75 Macrostachys in, 187 Anemophily, 41, 44, 45, 47, 49-51 Angiosperms, 51, 181

Annelida, 12-13, 24 Annelids, 12-13, 25 Anticarcinogens, 132, 133

Antiherbivore defenses, 3, 200. See also Mutualism artificial, 17

tritrophic interactions and, 18-22 trophic cascades and, 22-27 Ant lions, 12

Ants, 5-29, 114. See also Piper ant-plants; specific species amides and, 128-129, 130 dispersal ecology and, 65-66 leafcutter, 10, 21, 128, 129 mutualism and, 2, 3, 5-7, 10-11, 13-18, 23, 28, 98,

99-102, 105, 112-113, 130, 168, 169-174, 200 origin of plant structures associated with, 173-174 Piper sect. Macrostachys and, 156-157, 159-162,

166,168-174 predators of, 107 Anyphaenidae, 106 Anyphaeniids, 107 Apatelodids, 27 Apidae, 43, 45 Apomixis, 42, 43 Aporcelaimium, 13 Aprovechado, 28 Arachnida, 11 Araneae, 11 Arboreumine, 132 Archipteridae, 13 Arctottonia, 180, 181, 183, 185 Argentina, 90 Aristolochiaceae, 182 Artanthe, 188

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