Abiotic and Biotic Environments Cause Stress

The environment affects an organism in many ways, at any time. To understand the reactions of a particular organism in a certain situation, individual external influences, so-called environmental factors, are usually considered separately, if at all possible. Environmental factors can be of abiotic and biotic nature. Biotic environmental factors, resulting from interactions with other organisms, are, for example, infection or mechanical damage by herbivory or trampling, as well as effects of symbiosis or parasitism. Abiotic environmental factors include temperature, humidity, light intensity, the supply of water and minerals, and CO2; these are the parameters and resources that determine the growth of a plant. Many other influences, which are only rarely beneficial to the plant (wind as distributor of pollen and seeds), or not at all beneficial or are even damaging (ionising rays or pollutants), are also classified as abiotic factors. The effect of each abiotic factor depends on its quantity. With optimal quantity or intensity, as may be provided in a greenhouse, the plant grows "optimally" and thus achieves its

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