Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Editors xv

Contributors xvii

Chapter 1 Methods in Comparative Functional Ecology 1

Carlos M. Duarte

Chapter 2 Opportunistic Growth and Desiccation Tolerance: The Ecological

Success of Poikilohydrous Autotrophs 7

Ludger Kappen and Fernando Valladares

Chapter 3 Ecological Significance of Inherent Variation in Relative Growth Rate and Its Components 67

Hendrik Poorter and Eric Garnier

Chapter 4 The Architecture of Plant Crowns: From Design Rules to Light

Capture and Performance 101

Fernando Valladares and Ulo Niinemets

Chapter 5 Structure and Function of Root Systems 151

Robert B. Jackson, William T. Pockman, William A. Hoffmann, Timothy M. Bleby, and Cristina Armas

Chapter 6 Water Relations and Hydraulic Architecture 175

Melvin T. Tyree

Chapter 7 Responses of Plants to Heterogeneous Light Environments 213

Robert W. Pearcy

Chapter 8 Acquisition, Use, and Loss of Nutrients 259

Frank Berendse, Hans de Kroon, and Wim G. Braakhekke

Chapter 9 Functional Attributes in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems 285

Richard Joffre, Serge Rambal, and Claire Damesin

Chapter 10 Tropical Forests: Diversity and Function of Dominant Life-Forms 313

Ernesto Medina

Chapter 11 Plant Diversity in Tropical Forests 351

S. Joseph Wright

Chapter 12 Arctic Ecology 369

Sarah E. Hobbie

Chapter 13 Plant Life in Antarctica 389

T.G. Allan Green, Burkhard Schroeter, and Leopoldo G. Sancho

Chapter 14 Facilitation in Plant Communities 435

Ragan M. Callaway and Francisco I. Pugnaire

Chapter 15 Plant Interactions: Competition 457

Heather L. Reynolds and Tara K. Rajaniemi

Chapter 16 Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Beyond a Binary Vision 481

Elena Baraza, Regino Zamora, Jose A. Ho dar, and Jose M. Gomez

Chapter 17 Ecology of Plant Reproduction: Mating Systems and Pollination 515

Anna Traveset and Anna Jakobsson

Chapter 18 Seed and Seedling Ecology 549

Kaoru Kitajima

Chapter 19 Biodiversity and Interactions in the Rhizosphere: Effects on Ecosystem Functioning 581

Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría, Sofia R. Costa, and Helena Freitas

Chapter 20 Resistance to Air Pollutants: From Cell to Community 601

Jeremy Barnes, Alan Davison, Luis Balaguer, and Esteban Manrique-Reol

Chapter 21 Canopy Photosynthesis Modeling 627

Wolfram Beyschlag and Ronald J. Ryel

Chapter 22 Ecological Applications of Remote Sensing at Multiple Scales 655

John A. Gamon, Hong-Lie Qiu, and Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa

Chapter 23 Generalization in Functional Plant Ecology: The Species-Sampling

Problem, Plant Ecology Strategy Schemes, and Phylogeny 685

Mark Westoby

Index 705

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