This chapter has considered most of the methods for pest control listed in Box 8.1, but it considered them one at a time. Integrated pest management was mentioned early in the chapter. To some people this seems to mean any way of reducing the amounts of chemical pesticides used; for example, it might include using the pesticide at the most effective time of year, and just enough for economically acceptable control of the pest. A more straightforward meaning for integrated pest management is that we use several of the available methods (Box 8.1), and in such a way that they complement and reinforce each other. Integrated pest management systems have been developed for some crops in some areas. Metcalf and Luckman (1994) provide chapters on its application to control of insect pests of cotton and apple. Cussans (1995) discusses its application to weed control.
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