Biological and medical physics biomedical engineering

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The fields of biological and medical physics and biomedical engineering are broad, multidisciplinary and dynamic. They lie at the crossroads of frontier research in physics, biology, chemistry, and medicine. The Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering Series is intended to be comprehensive, covering a broad range of topics important to the study of the physical, chemical and biological sciences. Its goal is to provide scientists and engineers with textbooks, monographs, and reference works to address the growing need for information.

Books in the series emphasize established and emergent areas of science including molecular, membrane, and mathematical biophysics; photosynthetic energy harvesting and conversion; information processing; physical principles of genetics; sensory communications; automata networks, neural networks, and cellular automata. Equally important will be coverage of applied aspects of biological and medical physics and biomedical engineering such as molecular electronic components and devices, biosensors, medicine, imaging, physical principles of renewable energy production, advanced prostheses, and environmental control and engineering.

Editor-in-Chief:

Elias Greenbaum, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA

Editorial Board:

Masuo Aizawa, Department of Bioengineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan Olaf S. Andersen, Department of Physiology, Biophysics & Molecular Medicine, Cornell University, New York, USA

Robert H. Austin, Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

James Barber, Department of Biochemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, England

Howard C. Berg, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

Victor Bloomfield, Department of Biochemistry, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Robert Callender, Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA

Britton Chance, Department of Biochemistry/ Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Steven Chu, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA

Louis J. DeFelice, Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Johann Deisenhofer, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Texas, Dallas, Texas, USA

George Feher, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA

Hans Frauenfelder, CNLS, MS B258,

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos,

New Mexico, USA

Ivar Giaever, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA

Sol M. Gruner, Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

Judith Herzfeld, Department of Chemistry, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA

Pierre Joliot, Institute de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Fondation Edmond de Rothschild, Paris, France

Lajos Keszthelyi, Institute of Biophysics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary

Robert S. Knox, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester,

New York, USA

Aaron Lewis, Department of Applied Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

Stuart M. Lindsay, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

David Mauzerall, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA

Eugenie V. Mielczarek, Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA

Markolf Niemz, Klinikum Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany

V. Adrian Parsegian, Physical Science Laboratory, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Linda S. Powers, NCDMF: Electrical Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA

Earl W. Prohofsky, Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

Andrew Rubin, Department of Biophysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

Michael Seibert, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, USA

David Thomas, Department of Biochemistry, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Samuel J. Williamson, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York, USA

Mathematics for Ecology and Environmental Sciences

With 26 Figures

Springer

Prof. Yasuhiro Takeuchi

Shizuoka University

Faculty of Engineering

Department of Systems Engineering

Hamamatsu 3-5-1

432-8561 Shizuoka

Japan email: [email protected]

Prof. Yoh Iwasa

Kyushu University Department of Biology 812-8581 Fukuoka Japan e-mail: [email protected]

Dr. Kazunori Sato

Shizuoka University

Faculty of Engineering

Department of Systems Engineering

Hamamatsu 3-5-1

432-8561 Shizuoka

Japan email: [email protected].ac.jp

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data: 2006931399 ISSN 1618-7210

ISBN-10 3-540-34427-6 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York ISBN-13 978-3-540-34427-8 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York

This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9,1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law.

Springer is a part of Springer Science+Business Media springer.com

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.

Cover concept by eStudio Calamar Steinen

Cover production: WMXDesign GmbH, Heidelberg Production: LE-TeX Jelonek, Schmidt, VSckler GbR, Leipzig

Printed on acid-free paper SPIN 10995792 57/3141/NN - 5 4 3 210

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