1 Note that virtually all of these were implemented after the end of the metabolism study by

2 It was rumored during the Fall 2004 US presidential election, after Democratic candidate John

Kerry had threatened to close the border to Canadian garbage if elected, that the City was quietly looking for alternative dump sites in Southern Ontario.

3 For a good discussion of the complexities of the garbage crisis in today' s cities see Gandy


4 Next to these examples, we could also name the new provincial policy to create a green belt in

Southern Ontario. Taking huge areas of land under development restrictions results in tangible reductions of material streams and changes the spatial mode of regulation significantly in the region.

5 On their website, the Toronto Environmental Alliance presents itself in this way: "The

Toronto Environmental Alliance was formed in 1988 in order to provide an activist voice to local Toronto issues. TEA's mandate is to promote a greener Toronto. Our vision of a healthy community is based on equity, access, safely and a clean environment. We work with concerned individuals, public health agencies, local governments and grassroots organizations in order to encourage the participation of Toronto citizens on local issues and to provide a forum for citizens to be heard on environmental issues.

"TEA focuses on six major campaign areas, where we work on a variety of projects and programs related to Smog and Climate Change, Urban Pesticides, Waste Reduction, Sustainable Transportation, Water, and Involving Youth. (...)

"TEA speaks out on issues that shape our local environment so that, with the help of community volunteers, TEA has made progress on critical environmental issues while expanding the skills and knowledge of our broader community. Over the past decade TEA has grown to play a well-respected role both in the community and in municipal governments"

(; accessed 23 November 2004).

6 One observer remembered how the politics of compromise in the environmental area took shape after amalgamation: "So a couple of months after the election Layton said to Lastman—he bumped into him in the hall—[...] you know we don't have an environmental policy—of course we didn't have any policy cause it was an amalgamated city—so Lastman says why don't you get one—I'll put you in charge—you'll be chair of a committee and we'll set up environmental policies for the new city—so that's how he became head of The Environmental Task Force" (Roberts, personal interview, 3 December 2003).

7 Quick Start became a widely used policy tool in other areas than the environment later.

Wayne Roberts talks about its application in the food policy field: "Out of the Task Force we developed this concept that we've been working on ever since called the 'quickstart'. And we developed three criteria for a quickstart and I've since developed ten and I'm probably going to try to write it up sometime before the new year which is—partially so people know whether they have an issue that is a quickstart or not—like is child poverty an issue that you can move on quickly? You might think it is because everybody loves children—they're not guilty of being lazy and they're not responsible for their poverty or anything like that—so this is a checklist for you to know—and if you have four of them but you have the potential—you know these are the six things you have to work on. But we developed three criteria at the time. That is that it has a high degree of consensus and low degree of resistance—if there's a high degree of resistance you're not going to have a quickstart by definition—you're going to have a long haul. So the fantastic thing about municipal politics is that there are many circumstances where that is true because the bourgeoisie is not equally represented geographically across the country" (Roberts, personal interview, 3 December 2003).

8 Mayor Miller had campaigned using a broom as a symbol for sweeping the city clean of corruption. Next to the so-called MFP inquiry, which he spearheaded already as a councilor, Miller also moved quickly in his new job as mayor to make city hall more transparent to citizens.

9 De Baeremaeker relates an anecdote from recent memory: it used to be that in the more suburban political circles mention of the existence of white tail deer in city parks would not be greeted with amazement and wonder or lead to an impulse to protect habitat but to the impulse to get out the rifles to shoot the animals instead. Today, even opponents to growth control in the exurban development regime would try to cushion their interests in a rhetoric of ecology.

10 Both Wayne Roberts and Glenn De Baeremaeker suggest that this development has not yet taken place in the suburbs/905. Why? "Because people in the NGOs don't live in the 905" (Roberts 2003).


Amin, A. (2004) "Regions unbound: towards a new politics of place," Geografiska Annaler, 86B (1): 33-44

Bakker, K. (2003) "A political ecology of water privatization," Studies in Political Economy, 70 (Spring): 35-48

City of Toronto (2001) Waste Diversion Task Force, Online. Available HTTP:

<> (accessed 17 April 2005) City of Toronto (2002) Highlights of City Council Meeting of February 13, 14, and 15. Online. Available HTTP: (accessed 18 April 2005) City of Toronto (2003) Toronto's Water Efficiency Plan, Online. Available HTTP:

<> (accessed 17 April 2005) City of Toronto (2005a) Deep Lake Water Cooling Project cools Toronto.. .naturally. Online.

Available HTTP: < > (accessed 17 April 2005) City of Toronto (2005b) Pesticides: Brochures and Fact Sheets, Online. Available HTTP:

<> (accessed 17 April 2005)

City of Toronto (2005c) Toronto Atmospheric Fund, Online. Available HTTP:

<> (accessed 17 April 2005) City of Toronto—Chief Administrative Officer (2001) Building the New City of Toronto:

Reflections on Civic Engagement. Toronto: City Hall. Debbane, A.-M. and Keil, R. (2004) "Multiple disconnections: environmental justice, urban sustainability and water", Space and Polity, 8(2): 209-225 Desfor, G. and Keil, R. (2004) Nature and the City: Making Environmental Policy in Toronto and

Los Angeles. Tuscon, AZ: University of Arizona Press Fischer, F. (2000) Citizens, Experts and the Environment: The Politics of Local Knowledge.

Durham, NC: Duke University Press Fowler, Edmund P. and Franz Hartmann (2002) "City environmental policy: connecting the dots," in Edmund P.Fowler and David Siegel (eds) Urban Policy Issues: Canadian Perspectives. Second Edition. Don Mills: Oxford University Press Gibbs, D., Jonas, A. and While, A. (2002) "Changing governance structures and the environment: theorising the links between economy and environment at the local and regional scale", Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 5(3): 235-254 Girardet, H. (1992) The Gaia Atlas of Cities. New York: Anchor Books Görg, C. (2003) Regulation der Naturverhältnisse: Zu einer kritischen Theorie der ökologischen

Krise. Munster: Westfalisches Dampfboot Hakim, D. (2004) "Ontario to overtake Michigan as auto kingpin", The Globe and Mail, November 29: A1-A8

Hartmann, F. (1999) "Nature in the city: urban ecological politics in Toronto". Ph.D. Dissertation,

Political Science, York University Keil, R. (1994) "Green work alliances: the political economy of social ecology," Studies in

Political Economy, 44:7-38 Keil, R. (1998) "Toronto in the 1990s: dissociated governance?," Studies in Political Economy, 56:151-167

Keil, R. (2000) "Third way urbanism: opportunity or dead end?," Alternatives (Rob Walker, ed.)

(commissioned), 25(2) (April-June) Keil, R. (2002) "'Common sense' neoliberalism: progressive conservative urbanism in Toronto,

Canada", Antipode, 34(3): 578-601 Keil, R. (2003) Progress report: urban political ecology, Urban Geography Kipfer, S. and Keil, R. (2002) "Toronto Inc? Planning the competitive city in the new Toronto,"

Antipode, 34(2): 227-264 Krueger, R. and Agyeman, J. (forthcoming) "Sustainability schizophrenia or 'Actually existingsustainabilities': the politics and promise of a sustainability agenda in the US", Geoforum

Lefebvre, H. (2003) The Urban Revolution. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press Light, A. (2003) "Urban ecological citizenship," Journal of Social Philosophy, 34(1): 44-63

Luke, T.W. (2003) "Global cities cities rethinking contemporary urbanism as public ecology", Studies in Political Economy, 70:11-34 Newcome, K., Kalma, J. and Aston, A. (1978) "The metabolism of a city: the case of Hong Kong", Ambio, 7(1): 3-15

Peck, J. and Tickell, A. (2002) "Neoliberalizing space". In N.Brenner and N.Theodore (eds) Spaces of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Blackwell Peet, R. and Watts, M. (eds) (1996) Liberation Ecologies. London: Routledge Pollution Watch (2004) Shattering the Myth of Pollution Progress in Canada: A National Report. Toronto, Pollution Watch Online. Online. Available HTTP: <www.pollution> (accessed, 18 April 2005) Sahely, H., Dudding, S. and Kennedy, C. (2003) "Estimating the urban metabolism of Canadian cities: Greater Toronto Area case study", Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 30:468-483 Stewart, K. (1999) "Greening social democracy? Ecological modernization and the Ontario NDP",

Ph.D. Dissertation. Political Science. York University, Toronto Swyngedouw, E. (2004) Social Power and the Urbanization of Water. Flows of Power. Oxford:

Oxford University Press Swyngedouw, E., Kaika, M. and Castro, E. (2002) "Urban water: a political-ecological perspective", Built Environment, 28(2): 124-137 Swyngedouw, E. and Heynen, N. (2003) "Urban political ecology, justice and the politics of scale",

Antipode, 35(5): 898-918 TEA (Toronto Environmental Alliance) (2005) Smog, Climate Change and Energy, Online. Available HTTP: < a8652db2ec461615077477c6ba0> (accessed 18 April 2005). The Toronto Star (2004) "Editorial: Toronto's messy garbage collection", The Toronto Star, 21 November 2004

Wackernagel M. and Rees, W.E. (1996) Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the

Earth. Gabriola Island, BC; Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers. Warren-Rhodes, K. and Koenig, A. (2001) "Escalating trends in the urban metabolism of Hong

Kong: 1971-1997", Ambio, 30(7): 429-438 While A., Jonas, A. and Gibbs, D. (2004) "The environment and the entrepreneurial city: searching for the urban 'sustainability fix' in Manchester and Leeds," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(3): 549-569 Wolman, A. (1965) "The metabolism of cities", Scientific American, 213(3): 178-193 Young, D. and Keil, R. (2005) "Urinetown or morainetown? Debates on the re-regulation of the urban water regime in Toronto", Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 16:2 (June)

0 0

Post a comment