1 It is fair, I think, to argue that the neoliberal, entrepreneurial discourse, including some entrepreneurial narrative of nature, has been appropriated by urban parks advocates as a means to and end—that is, a renewed commitment by urban decision makers to urban parks following decades of political ambivalence and neglect (Harnik 2000). Best intentions aside, however, the move to advocate urban parks as just objects in a competitive economic landscape deserves theoretical critique and explanation.

2 NLREEP has since been absorbed into the Fairmount Park Commission. The Yale School of

Forestry and Environmental Studies is involved in a number of urban ecological research projects on the east coast, including Baltimore and New Haven.

3 The two most recent victims, both women, were discovered three months prior to the writing of this article.

4 The Wissahickon and Pennypack parks are two other watershed parks. They are surrounded by generally white, middle to upper-middle class white communities.

Inherited fragmentations and narratives of environmental control 213 5 Director, NLREEP, speaking on community participation in Cobbs Creek.


Adams, C., Bartelt, D., Elesh, D., Goldstein, L, Kleniewski, N., and Yancey, W. (1990)

Philadelphia: Neighborhoods, Division, and Conflict in a Postindustrial City. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press Amin, A. (ed.) (1994) Post-Fordism: A Reader. Maiden, MA: Blackwell Antrop, M. (2004) "Landscape change and the urbanization process in Europe", Landscape and

Urban Planning, 67:9-26 Bissinger, B. (1997) A Prayer for the City. New York: Vintage

Botkin, D. (2001) "The naturalness of biological invasions", Western North American Naturalist, 61:261-266

Brenner, N. and Theodore, N. (eds) (2002a) Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in

North America and Western Europe. Maiden, MA: Blackwell Brenner, N. and Theodore, N. (2002b) "Cities and the geographies of actually existing neoliberalism", in N.Brenner and N.Theodore (eds) Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and Western Europe. Maiden, MA: Blackwell City of Philadelphia (1999) Philadelphia: A New Urban Direction. Philadelphia: St. Joseph's University Press

Cowell, R. and Thomas, H. (2002) "Managing nature and narratives of dispossession: reclaiming territory in Cardiff Bay", Urban Studies, 39:1,241-1,260 Cranz, G. (1982) The Politics of Park Design: A History of Urban Parks in America. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

DeFillipis, J. (1997) "From a public re-creation to private recreation: the transformation of public space in South Street Seaport", Journal of Urban Affairs, 19:405-417 Eade, J. (1997) "Reconstructing places: changing images of locality in docklands and Spitalfields", in J.Eade (ed.) Living the Global City: Globalization as Local Process. London: Routledge Fairmount Park Commission (1999) Fairmount Park Ecological Restoration Master Plan.

Philadelphia, PA: Fairmount Park Commission Falck, Z.J.S. (2002) "Controlling the weed nuisance in turn-of-the-century American cities",

Environmental History, 7 611-631 Feldman, T.D. and Jonas, A.E.G. (2000) "Sage scrub revolution? Property rights, political fragmentation, and conservation planning in Southern California under the federal Endangered Species Act", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90: 256-292 Forman, R. (1998) Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press Freestone, R. and Nichols, D. (2004) "Realising new leisure opportunities for old parks: the internal reserve in Australia", Landscape and Urban Planning, 68:109-120 Gandy, M. (2002) Concrete and Clay: Reworking Nature in New York City. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Garvin, A. and Berens, G. (eds) (1997) Urban Parks and Open Space. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute

Gibbs, D. and Jonas, A.E.G. (2000) "Governance and regulation in local environmental policy: the utility of a regime approach", Geoforum, 31:299-213 Glacken, C.J. (1967) Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press

Gobster, P.H. and Hull, R.B. (eds) (2000) Restoring Nature: Perspectives from the Social Sciences and Humanities. Washington, DC: Island Press

Goldenberg, N. (1999) "Philadelphia launches major restoration initiative in park system",

Ecological Restoration, 17:8-14 Hacker, A. (1995) Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal New York: Ballantine

Harding, S. (1999) "Towards a renaissance in urban parks", Cultural Trends, 35:3-20 Harnik, P. (2000) Inside City Parks, Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute Harvey, D. (1985) The Urbanization of Capital. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press Harvey, D. (1989) "From managerialism to entrepreneurialism: the transformation in urban governance in late capitalism", Geografiska Annaler, 71B: 3-17 Harvey, D. (1992) "Capitalism: the factory of fragmentation", New Perspectives Quarterly, Spring Harvey, D. (1996) Justice, Nature, and the Geography of Difference. Maiden, MA: Blackwell Heynen, N.C. (2003) "The scalar production of injustice within the urban forest", Antipode, 35:980-998

Jonas, A.E.G. and Gibbs, D.C. (2003) "Changing local modes of economic and environmental governance in England: a tale of two areas", Social Science Quarterly, 84: 1,018-1,037 Karasov, D. and Waryan, S. (eds) (1993) The Once and Future Park. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press

Keil, R. and Graham, J. (1998) "Reasserting nature: constructing urban environments after Fordism", in B.Braun and N.Castree (eds) Remaking Reality: Nature at the Millenium. New York: Routledge

Keil, R. and Desfor, G. (2003) "Ecological modernization in Los Angeles and Toronto", Local Environment, 8:27-44

Kipfer, S., Hartmann, F., and Marino, S. (1996) "Cities, nature and socialism: towards an urban agenda for action and research", Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 7: 5-19 Latty, Y. (2000) "Trashing Cobbs Creek", Philadelphia Daily News, 23 February Lauria, M. (ed.) (1997) Reconstructing Urban Regime Theory: Regulating Urban Politics in a

Global Economy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Light, A. (forthcoming) "Restorative relationships", in R.France (ed.) Healing Nature, Repairing Relationships: Landscape Architecture and the Restoration of Ecological Spaces. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Lindig-Cisneros, R. and Zedler, J.B. (2000) "Restoring urban habitats: a comparative study",

Ecological Restoration, 18:184-192 Massey, D. and Denton, N. (1989) "Hypersegregation in United States metropolitan areas: Black and Hispanic segregation along 5 dimensions", Demography, 26(3): 373-391 Massey, D. and Denton, N. (1993) American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the

Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Mayer, M. (1994) "Post-Fordist city politics", A.Amin (ed.) Post-Fordism: A Reader. Maiden, MA: Blackwell

McCarthy, J. and Prudham, S. (2004) "Neoliberal nature and the nature of neoliberalism",

Geoforum, 35:275-283 McGinnis, M.V. and Woolley, J.T. (1997) "The discourses of restoration", Restoration and

Management Notes, 15:74-77 McInroy, N. (2000) "Urban regeneration and public space: the story of an urban park", Space & Polity, 4:23-40

Merchant, C. (1986) "Restoration and reunion with nature", Restoration and Management Notes, 4:68-70

Mooney, H.A. and Hobbs, R.J. (eds) (2000) Invasive Species in a Changing World. Covelo, CA: Island Press

Mumford, L. (1955) "The natural history of urbanization", in W.L.Thomas (ed.) Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press

Peck, J. and Tickell, A. (2002) "Neoliberalizing space", in N.Brenner and N.Theodore (eds) Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and Western Europe. Maiden, MA: Blackwell

Pickett, S.T.A. and White, P. (eds) (1985) The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch

Dynamics. London: Academic Press Pincetl, S. (2003) "Nonprofits and park provision in Los Angeles: an exploration of the rise of governance approaches to the provision of local services", Social Science Quarterly, 84(4): 979-1,001

Platt, R.H., Rowntree, R.A., and Muick, P.C. (eds) (1994) The Ecological City. Amherst, MA:

University of Massachusetts Press Robbins, P. and Sharp, J. (2003) "The lawn-chemical economy and its discontents", Antipode, 35:955-980

Rosenzweig, R. and Blackmar, E. (1992) The Park and the People: A History of Central Park.

Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J., and Margules, C.R. (1991) "Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review", Conservation Biology, 5:18-32 Schama, S. (1995) Landscape and Memory. New York: Knopf

Smith, L. (2004) "The murky waters of the second wave of neoliberalism: corporatization as a service delivery model in Cape Town", Geoforum, 35:375-393 Smith, L. and Hanson, S. (2003) "Access to water for the urban poor in Cape Town: where equity meets cost recovery", Urban Studies, 40(8): 1,517-1,548 Solecki, W.D. and Welch, J.M. (1995) "Urban parks: green magnets or green walls?", Landscape and Urban Planning, 32:93-106 Sprugel, D.G. (1991) "Disturbance, equilibrium, and environmental variability: what is "natural"

vegetation in a changing environment?", Biological Conservation, 58: 1-18 Stormann, W.F. (1991) "The ideology of the American urban parks and recreation movement: past and future", Leisure Sciences, 13:137-151 Swyngedouw, E. (1989) "The heart of the place: the resurrection of locality in an age of hyperspace", Geogrqfiska Annaler, 71B: 31-42 Taylor, D.E. (1999) "Central Park as a model for social control: urban parks, social class and leisure behavior in nineteenth-century America", Journal of Leisure Research, 31: 420-477 Thompson, C.W. (2002) "Urban open space in the 21st century", Landscape and Urban Planning, 60:59-72

Valentine, G. (1989) "The geography of women's fear", Area, 21:385-390

Warr, M. (1985) "Fear of rape among urban women", Social Problems, 32:238-250

Watts, M. and Peet, R. (1996) "Towards a theory of liberation ecology", in R.Peet and M.Watts

(eds) Liberation Ecologies, New York: Routledge Whitehead, M. (2003) "(Re)Analysing the sustainable city: nature, urbanization, and the regulation of socio-environmental relations in the UK", Urban Studies, 40:1183-1206 With, K.A. (2002) "The landscape ecology of invasive spread", Conservation Biology, 16: 11921203

Zukin, S. (1995) The Cultures ofCities, Maiden, MA: Blackwell

Key Principles For Entrepreneurs

Key Principles For Entrepreneurs

If you're wanting to learn how to set goals now for tomorrow's benefit. Then this may be the most important letter you'll ever read! You're About To Learn All About Growth Potential Without Potential Waste And How To Manage Your Money Principles, No Matter How Much Time You Have Had To Prepare! It doesn't matter if you've never experienced entrepreneurship up close and personal, This guide will tell you everything you need to know, without spending too much brainpower!

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment