1 Ernst Haeckel, who coined the term ecology (1866), mobilized organic metaphors to describe social conditions, and started a long lineage of human ecological analysis, one that would ultimately drive a wedge between the natural sciences and the social sciences as the legitimacy of such unmediated trans-formulations was increasingly questioned. Human ecology would subsequently bifurcate into a dematerialized social ecology, primarily through the Chicago School, on the one hand, and industrial ecology on the other. The latter, moving increasingly in the direction of a variety of types of commodity chain or goods-flow analysis, would increasingly distance itself from relational social theory (Fisher-Kowalski 1998; 2003; Fisher-Kowalski and Huttler 1999; Newcombe 1977).

2 This statement, of course, does not mean that thought or languages are simply the epiphenomenon of "material" relations. On the contrary, very complex dialectical arrangements infuse the articulation of the real, the symbolic, and the imaginary (for different ways of exploring these articulations, see, for example, Zizek (Zizek and Daly 2003) or Lefebvre (1991) in the construction of the real.

3 Although Schmidt (1971) and Fisher-Kowalski (1998) maintain that Moleschott (1857)

provided the influential insights, this is convincingly rebuked by Foster (2000), who maintained that von Liebig (1840) was of central importance. In any case, the use of "metabolism" was widespread in the emerging social sciences at the time and both Marx and Engels were familiar with the ongoing scientific debates in biology.

4 This has become engrained in social theory since its founding fathers Durkheim, Weber, and a

"socialized" Marx.

5 While the Physiocrats were radically and correctly critiqued, the rational kernel of their mythical theorization was equally dismissed radically.

6 The first person apparently to suggest the circulation of blood in the arterial system was Ibn-

al-Nnafiz (physician, born in Baghdad and died in Cairo in 1288) (Illich 1986:40). The idea of circulation remained alien to the imagination of sixteenth-century Europeans. Two sixteenth-century scientists suspected what Harvey would later discover: Servetus (a Spanish genius and heretic burnt by Calvin—he also edited Ptolemy's geography in Lyon—and student of Vesalius in Paris) and Realdus Colombus of Padua (also student of Vesalius). Harvey was a student of Vesalius in 1603.


Althusser, L. (1969) For Marx. London: Verso

Benton, T. (1989) "Marxism and natural limits: an ecological critique and reconstruction", New

Left Review, 178:51-86 Benton, T. (ed.) (1996) The Greening of Marxism. New York: Guilford Press Bhaskar R. (1979) The Possibility of Naturalism. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press Burkett, P. (1999) Marx and Nature—A Red and Green Perspective. New York: St Martin's Press Castree, N. (2000) "Marxism and the production of nature", Capital and Class, 72:5-37 Castree, N. (2002) "False anthitheses? Marxism, nature and actor-networks", Antipode, 34: 111146

Chadwick, E. (1842) Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great

Britain. London: B.P.P., Vol. XXVI Chadwick, E. (1887) The Health of Nations, 2 vols. Ed. R.W.Richardson. London: Longmans Green & Co.

Corbin, A. (1994) The Foul and the Fragrant. London: Picador

Douglas, I.R. (2004) "The calm before the storm: Virilio's debt to Foucault, and some notes on contemporary global capital" . Online. Available HTTP: < ~nideffer/_SPEED_/1.4/articles/douglas.html> (accessed 15 May 2004) Fischer-Kowalski, M. (1998) "Society's metabolism. The intellectual history of material flow analysis, Part I, 1860-1970", Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2(1): 61-78 Fischer-Kowalski, M. (2003) "On the history of industrial metabolism", in D.Bourg and S.Erkman

(eds) Perspectives on Industrial Ecology. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Fischer-Kowalski, M. and Hüttler, W. (1999) "Society's metabolism: The state of the art. The intellectual history of material flow analysis, Part II, 1970-1998", Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2(4): 107-137

Foster, J.B. (2000) Marx's Ecology—Materialism and Nature. New York: Monthly Review Press Gandy, M. (2004) "Rethinking urban metabolism: water, space and the modern city", City, 8(3): 371-387

Godelier, M. (1986) The Mental and the Material. London: Verso

Goubert, J.P. (1989) The Conquest of Water: The advent of health in the industrial age. Cambridge: Polity Press

Grundman, R. (1991) Marxism and Ecology. Oxford: Clarendon Press Haeckel, E. (1866) Generelle morphologie des organismen. Berlin: G.Reimer Haraway, D. (1991) Simians, Cyborgs and Women—The reinvention of Nature. London: Free Association Books

Hardt, M. and Negri, A. (2000) Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Harvey, A.D. (1999) "The body politic: anatomy of a metaphor", Contemporary Review, August. Online. Available HTTP: <http: // is_1603_275/ai_55683940> (accessed 12 June 2004). Harvey, D. (1985) The Urbanization of Capital. Oxford: Blackwell Harvey, D. (1996) Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference. Oxford: Blackwell Harvey, W. (1628) Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus. Francofurti:

Sumptibus Gulielmi Fitzeri Hughes, J. (2000) Ecology and Historical Materialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Illich, I. (1986) H2O and the waters of Forgetfulness. London: Marion Boyars Jameson F. (2002) A Singular Modernity. London: Verso Kaika, M. (2005) City of Flows. London and New York: Routledge

Kaika, M. and Swyngedouw, E. (1999) "Fetishising the modern city: the phantasmagoria of urban technological networks", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24(1): 120138

Kirsch, S. and Mitchell, D. (2004) "The nature of things: dead labor, nonhuman actors, and the persistence of Marxism", Antipode, 36(4): 687-706 Latour, B. (1993) We Have Never Been Modern. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf Latour B. (2004) Politics of Nature: How to bring the sciences into democracy. Cambridge, MA:

Harvard University Press Lefebvre, H. (1991) The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell

Levins, R. and Lewontin, R. (1985) The Dialectical Biologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Liebig von, J. (1840) Principles of Agricultural Chemistry, with Special Reference to the Late

Researches Made in England. English Edition. London: Walton & Maberly, 1855 Liebig von, J. (1842) Animal Chemistry: or, Organic Chemistry in its Application to Physiology and Pathology. Edited from the author's manuscript by William Gregory. With additions, notes, and corrections by Dr. Gregory and John W.Webster. A facsimile of the Cambridge edition of 1842. New York: Johnson Reprint Luke, T.W. (1999) Capitalism, Democracy, and Ecology. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press

Marx, K. (1861-1863) Economic Manuscripts, 1861-1863, Online. Available HTTP: <http:

//> (accessed 30 March 2005) Marx, K. (1971) Capital, Volume I. New York: Penguin (first published 1867) Marx, K. (1973) Grundrisse. New York: Vintage Books (first published 1858) Marx, K. (1974) The German Ideology (ed. C.J.Arthur). London: Lawrence and Wishart (first published 1846)

Marx, K. (1982) Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts, Selected Writings. London: Lawrence & Wishart

Mayer, J.R. (1845) Die organische Bewegung in ihrem Zusammenhange mit dem Stoffwechsel.

Heilbronn: C.Drechsler Moleschott, J. (1857) Der kreislauf des lebens. Mainz: Von Zabern

Montesquie, Secondat, baron de, 1689-1755 (1973) Lettres Persanes, Edition établie et présentée par Jean Starobinski. Collection Folio 475. Paris: Gallimard Montesquie, Secondat, baron de, 1689-1755 (1995). I'Esprit des lois. Paris: Nathan Newcombe, K. (1977) "Nutrient flow in major urban settlements: Hong Kong", Human Ecology 5(3): 179-208

Norgaard, R. (1994) Development Betrayed: the end of progress and a revolutionary revisioning of the future. New York and London: Routledge Padovan, D. (2000) "The concept of social metabolism in classical sociology", THEOMAI, 2 Rimbaud, A. (1873) Une saison en enfer. Bruxelles: M.J.Poot & Co Schmidt, A. (1971) The Concept of Nature in Marx. London: New Left Books Sennett, R. (1994) Flesh and Stone. London: Faber and Faber

Starr, D. (1998) Blood: an epic history of medicine and commerce. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Swyngedouw, E. (1996) "The city as a hybrid—on nature, society and cyborg urbanization",

Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 7(1): 65-80 Swyngedouw, E. (2004) Social Power and the Urbanization of Water: flows of power. Oxford:

Oxford University Press Teich, M. (1982) "Circulation, transformation, conservation of matter and the balancing of the biological world in the eighteenth century", Ambix, 29:17-28 Virilio, P. (1986) Speed and Politics: an essay on dromology, Semiotext(e). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Weisz, H., Fisher-Kowalski, M., Grünbühel, M., Haberl, H., Krausman, F. and Winiwarter, V.

(2001) "Global environmental change and historical transitions", Innovation, 14(2): 117-142 Wolman, A. (1965) "The metabolism of cities", Scientific American, 213(3): 178-193

Zitouni, B. (2004) "Donna Haraway and Bruno Latour: an ontological divide", Paper presented at the "Technonatures II" conference, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University, 24 June 2004 Zizek, S. and Daly, G. (2003) Conversations with Zizek. Oxford: Polity Press

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment