Water networks and delivery systems

These are being scrutinized for their ability to deliver clean and healthy water to the region in an efficient and socially just way (Debbane and Keil 2004; Young and Keil 2005); the sewerage system, which drains the cities households and industries, must be updated all the time as the system ages, capacities reach limits and demand grows. Public workers, who are the backbone of the water system's flawless and reliable performance, have linked the discourse on ecological modernization to a social and environmental justice claim that involves both the security of their

Figure 3.1 "Watering the road again?" Municipal advertising campaign against water waste

Figure 3.1 "Watering the road again?" Municipal advertising campaign against water waste

Source: Produced by Axmith Mclntyre Wicht Ltd for the City of Toronto

Figure 3.2 "Relax, it's just a weed!" Municipal advertising campaign for the new by-law that bans pesticides from private ornamental gardens

Source: Produced by Axmith McIntyre Wicht Ltd for the City of Toronto

Figure 3.2 "Relax, it's just a weed!" Municipal advertising campaign for the new by-law that bans pesticides from private ornamental gardens

Source: Produced by Axmith McIntyre Wicht Ltd for the City of Toronto jobs and the maintenance of high standards of skill and scrutiny in the system. Marketization, privatization and commodification of water are seen as potential threats to a time-honored system of public service delivery in water services. The threat of privatization has not been the only important issue related to water. The city has pledged to invest hundreds of millions of dollars into its failing water and sewer infrastructure; a Water Efficiency Plan was passed by City Council in 2003 with the goal of reducing water and wastewater flows in an attempt to meet the demands of a growing regional population (City of Toronto 2003). A Works Best Practices Program has been introduced. Storm water quality management and sewage flow monitoring have been improved and re-regulated.

Among the big ways in which socio-ecological material streams have been reregulated has been the Deep Lake Water Cooling project, a PPP with Enwave District Energy Limited in the lead. This scheme, which had been discussed in environmental activist circles in Toronto since the early 1990s, will eventually use pumped-in water from the bottom of Lake Ontario to cool the office towers in the central city in a much more efficient and ecologically sustainable way than its current oil-dependent method (City of Toronto 2005a). It is clear that this scheme, which was ridiculed less than a decade ago as environmentalist fantasy, has now gained the attention of the development elites of the inner city, who are keen on lowering their energy costs in an age of $50 barrel oil.

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