Entropy and Biology Photosynthesis

To live and reproduce, plants and animals need a continuous flow of energy. The energy of the biosphere which originates in the luminous energy of the Sun, is captured by plants and passes from one living form to another along the food chain. The luminous energy captured by chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants, is stored in carbohydrates, molecules rich in energy, by a process called photosynthesis, a term that means 'to make things with light'. This radiant pathway that provides us with...

Sources of Copper Pollution

As one of the great metals of commerce, it is not surprising that copper released by humans into the environment is in significant excess over what might be found naturally. Copper (and other) pollution has occurred in the vicinity of copper mines and smelting operations since mankind began the activity several millennia ago. The excavation of Cu-containing earth at open pit copper mines can produce copper rich dusts which are spread in the wind around the mine site. Most of these ores are...

Releaser Pheromones Sex pheromones

The term sex pheromone is generally used for compounds that modulate mating or increase the likelihood of sexual interactions between different individuals. Sexual communication via chemicals is probably the most prevalent type of chemical signaling and can be found in nearly all taxonomic groups ranging from bacteria to higher mammals. Due to the overwhelming diversity of mating systems and reproductive strategies among these organisms, compounds that are summarized as sex pheromones can...

Macroalgae and Mariculture

Porphyra Pseudolinearis Ueda

Macroscopic marine algae seaweeds or sea vegetables form an important living resource of the near-shore environment. For millennia, people have collected seaweeds for food, fodder for animals, as well as fertilizers and soil enhancers. More recently, seaweeds have become important sources of various biochemicals, such as phycocolloids, and are important in medicine and biotechnology. We all use seaweed products in our daily life in some way or other. For example, some seaweed poly-saccharides...

Definition and Scope of Biological Control

Biological control is a form of pest control that uses living organisms (parasitoids, predators, or herbivorous arthropods) to suppress a pest's density to lower levels. There are four kinds of biological control, two of which - classical biological control and augmentative biological control - are discussed in this article and two others - conservation biological control and biopesticides - that are discussed in Biological Control Models. Classical biological control is the deliberate...