experienced by individuals in the cohort as juveniles (cohort effects), and this variation can persist throughout life and lead to differences in fitness among cohorts. This variation among cohorts can further affect many aspects of population dynamics (see the section 'Cohort effects'). Because age structure has such a strong effect on the productivity and mortality patterns of populations and can vary markedly between years within a population, even for long-lived ^-selected species, the annual rate of increase of populations can also vary markedly simply because of annual changes in the age structure of a population.
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