These plants are herbs that complete their life cycles (i.e., from seed to seed) in one season, so plants reproduce early and die after seed dispersal (Figure 1). One of the traits that characterize annual plants is that they cope with adverse environmental conditions as dormant seeds in the soil seed bank. The persistence of seeds in the soil is therefore a crucial phase in an annual plant's life cycle. The population dynamics of annual plants tend to be highly variable as a result of the unpredictability of environmental conditions that seeds and adult plants encounter from year to year during their germination and reproductive seasons, respectively.
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