Antifouling Chemicals Tested

As the antifoulants tested, the authors used CuSO4 and ten different types of antifouling chemicals shown in Figure 1, the purities of which were >95 %. Among them, 2-methylthio-4-terf-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine (Irgarol 1051) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (Diuron) possess the effect of algaecide and inhibit photosystem II by interfering with the electron-transport chain of photosynthesis in chloroplasts. A-Dichlorofluoromethylthio-A,A'-dimethyl-A-phenylsulfamide (DCF) has been used as a fungicide in agriculture for its actions against a wide range of organisms. High activity was observed for SEA-NINE 211 against a wide spectrum of bacteria, diatoms, fungi, and algae. 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) is not only an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase in animals but also a highly effective fungicide and bacteriocide. Zinc 2-pyridinethiol 1-oxide (Zn-pt) and copper 2-pyridinethiol 1-oxide (Cu-pt) are well known as effective biocidal agents and have been widely used in personal-care products such as antidandruff shampoos and a particularly desirable biocide against soft fouling, respectively. Zinc bis(A,A-dimethyl)dithiocarba-mate (Ziram) and triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP) have been frequently used as fungicide and antifouling biocide, respectively. Each chemical dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added into ASW at a concentration of 1% (v/v). To determine the EC50 values of each single chemical as well as its combinations precisely, concentrations of each chemical were increased by 1.5-fold between adjacent concentrations. The concentration ratios of two kinds of chemicals in a mixture were manipulated by using each EC50 value in a single form. The controls for all samples were ASW containing 1% (v/v) DMSO.

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