The Hopfield network model has found limited applications in ecology. They have been used to model and simulate the division of labor among workers in ant colonies. Other similar unsupervised ANN models have been used to cluster and classify community data for aquatic systems. Hopfield networks have found other biological applications, such as modeling the chemical communications between cells in the body. They are also used in genomics and bioinformatics. Using this model for classification in ecology is appropriate when the underlying relationships in a data set are nonlinear but where the data quality is too poor to support the use of a nonlinear regression.
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