Not surprisingly, humans have displayed an absorbing fascination for examples of cooperation in the animal world, long before the evolutionary puzzle associated with them became evident. Indeed, freedom from evolutionary thinking accommodated all manner of untenable theories about cooperation, in the past. While T. H. Huxley believed that cooperation and altruism were only possible among close kin and P. Kropotkin saw 'mutual aid' everywhere he looked, unconnected with any sort of kinship, both W. C. Allee and V. C. Wynne Edwards succumbed to a naive form of group selection, the notion that cooperation and self-sacrifice existed because they were good for the group and the species -never mind that they were harmful to the individuals displaying them.

Conclusion Further Reading

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