Chamaephytes have their perennating buds above the soil but lower than 0.25 m such that they are protected during unfavorable growth conditions by leaf liter, snow, or dense growth of the plant itself (Figures 2B and 2C). Four main subdivisions are recognized: (1) suffrutescent or semishrubby forms (e.g., Lavendula), (2) passively decumbent growth forms (e.g., Sedum), (3) actively creeping forms (i.e., Thymus), and (4) cushion plants (e.g., Raoulia). Some authors have added herbaceous pterido-phytes, nonvascular land plants, and fruticose lichens to this category (e.g., Lycopodium, Thuidium, and Cladonia, respectively).

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