Chemical stressors

Chemical stressors include various pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) which could lead to egg shell thinning in avian species such as the well-known case of the American bald eagle; it could be estrogenic chemicals such as 17/3-estradiol from poultry litter that can lead to feminization of some male fish species. It could be a chemical such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) discharged into water systems that could induce mutation in some freshwater species. Toxins resulting from snake bite or heavy metal contamination by cadmium, arsenic, and mercury of soil, water, food, or air may constitute stressors for both plants and animals when they enter biological organisms via ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact.

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