Classifying Prey Defenses

Two often used criteria for classifying prey defenses are: 'at which step does a defense interrupt the predation cycle?' and 'is a defense permanently expressed or only in the presence of predator cues?' They are further outlined below. Please note that these criteria are not exclusive but can easily be combined with each other. Also, depending on the question one is interested in, other classifications of defenses can be useful as well, for example, whether a defense is behavioral, morphological, physiological, or involves a life-history change.

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