Coevolution of the Biosphere and Climate

D W Schwartzman, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Introduction

What Is a Biogeochemical Cycle, the Biosphere, Climate?

History of the Concept of Coevolution of Biosphere and Climate The Carbon Biogeochemical Cycle What Regulates the Long-Term Climate? Sources and Sinks: Equal at Steady State The Biotic Enhancement of Weathering and the Long-Term Carbon Cycle

Biogeochemical Cycles of Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur and Their Influences on the Coevolution of Life and Climate The Habitability of Earth The Faint Young Sun Paradox and Its Solution The Temperature Constraint on Biologic Evolution From 'Hothouse' to 'Icehouse': The Increase in Diversity of Habitats for Life Summary Further Reading

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