The second major life-form is the colonial life-form, which results when the products of cellular division remain aggregated within a common matrix or binding medium but fail to have or maintain cytoplasmic (sym-plastic) connections among adjoining cells. Species with colonial life-forms occur in most algal lineages. Two
Figure 1 Five developmental processes affecting how organized growth is achieved among algal life-forms: (1) karyokinesis (nuclear division) synchronous or asynchronous with cytokinesis (protoplast division), (2) dividing cells separate or remain adjoined, (3) cytoplasmic continuity is maintained or is lost between dividing cells, (4) determinate or indeterminate growth in size, and (5) orientation of plane(s) of division with respect to body length. Morphologies achieved by these processes include branched filaments (a) and tubular (b), thalloid (c), foliose (d), and kelp forms (e). See Table 1, for additional details.
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