Natural selection works through responses of individuals within populations to different environments. Therefore, population dynamics is intimately linked to natural selection, and speciation may have its foundations in within-species polymorphisms for resources. Adaptations may serve to either enhance population stability or lead to increased variation in demographic parameters, and are key to species performance across a wide range of environments, such as across latitudes. A new suite of methods, such as structurally dynamic modeling, are required which take into account the consequences of adaptations at the population level (such as plankton size shifts) to model responses of ecosystems to changed impacts.

See also: Allee Effects; Death; Dispersal-Migration; Fecundity; Growth Models; Metapopulation Models; Resilience.

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