Conclusion

Conservation biological control and biopesticides have great potential in organic agriculture or in IPM programs. These systems are complementary and elements of them can be integrated into conventional pest management systems. The two techniques do have their limitations, however, and most agriculturalists need to adjust their perception of the technologies, especially biopesticides. Currently, the latter are viewed as substitutes for agrochemicals, and the products are expected to operate at the same speed and under the same wide range of environmental conditions as conventional products. Agriculturalists require education about the biology ofthe biopesticide and the target pest. They need to set up pest monitoring systems, develop a network of contacts to assist in decisions concerning when and how to apply biopesticides, and realize the limitations of the technology. Limitations include of being effective only pre-infection, of needing different biopesticides for particular pests, ofenvir-onmental conditions, etc.; these are important influences on the efficacy ofcontrol. Acceptance ofthe limitations and the gaining of appropriate knowledge should allow biopesticides and conservation biological control techniques to be integrated into agroecosystems to produce a more sustainably produced, higher-value product. This approach can enhance the contribution of ecosystem services to pest, weed, and disease control, satisfying increasing environmental, energy, human health, and marketing demands.

See also: Classical and Augmentative Biological Control.

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