Conclusions

The chemical defense of animals parallels in many aspects that of plants (see Plant Defense Strategies). Often deterrents or toxins used are Michael acceptors that react with nucleophiles, inhibitors of the respiratory chain, or neu-rotoxins. Simple mechanisms such as bad taste or smell and extreme pH caused by strong acids are also a very common strategy used by both types of organisms. In addition to these parallels, many animals of all classes use a different defense strategy. They take advantage from adaptation to their food and reuse toxins from the food by sequestration.

See also: Defense Strategies of Marine and Aquatic Organisms; Marine and Aquatic Defense Strategies; Plant Defense Strategies.

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