Conclusions

An analysis of Table 2 provides the following conclusions:

1. natural biogenic sources provide an average annual flow of methane about 540 million tons yr- ;

2. abiogenic natural sources, both lithospheric and hydrospheric, deliver about 1360 million tons yr-1 of methane;

3. anthropogenic sources, including methane emissions from human agricultural activity, loss of methane in organic fuel mining and its industrial emissions, provide an average annual flow of methane about 1100 million tonsyr-1.

Thus, the natural component of methane emissions into the atmosphere is estimated at 1900 million tyr- , which is 1.7 times more than anthropogenic emissions. Longtime regional observations and their analyses on the

Table 2 The contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources in release of methane into the atmosphere, in milliontonsyr

Source

Literary data

Results of generalization

Natural

Biogenic

Wetlands

Termites

Soils

Tundra

Total

Lithosphere and hydrosphere sources Oceans

Freshwater reservoirs Volcanoes

Gas hydrates, metamorphism, COX, etc.

Deposits of natural gas Oil fields Coal layers Mud volcanoes Total

Anthropogenous Agriculture and living activity Animals Rice fields

Biomass combustion

Landfills

Total

Industry and energy production Losses during gas and oil mining Losses during coal mining Industrial pollution and sewage waste Motor transport Total

Grand total

105-300 37-150 10-80 1.3-13 153.3-543

5-100

10-160.2

70-200

100-350

50-160

30-70

250-780

30-90

6-40

43.7-182

457-1665.2

300 150 80 13

200 350 160 70

200 60-80 50 2

global scale are necessary in order to finalize quantitative estimations of methane emissions from concrete lithosphere sources.

See also: Carbon Cycle; Climate Change 1: Short-Term Dynamics; Climate Change 2: Long-Term Dynamics; Climate Change 3: History and Current State; Coevolution of the Biosphere and Climate.

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