An analysis of Table 2 provides the following conclusions:
1. natural biogenic sources provide an average annual flow of methane about 540 million tons yr- ;
2. abiogenic natural sources, both lithospheric and hydrospheric, deliver about 1360 million tons yr-1 of methane;
3. anthropogenic sources, including methane emissions from human agricultural activity, loss of methane in organic fuel mining and its industrial emissions, provide an average annual flow of methane about 1100 million tonsyr-1.
Thus, the natural component of methane emissions into the atmosphere is estimated at 1900 million tyr- , which is 1.7 times more than anthropogenic emissions. Longtime regional observations and their analyses on the
Table 2 The contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources in release of methane into the atmosphere, in milliontonsyr
Results of generalization
Lithosphere and hydrosphere sources Oceans
Freshwater reservoirs Volcanoes
Gas hydrates, metamorphism, COX, etc.
Deposits of natural gas Oil fields Coal layers Mud volcanoes Total
Anthropogenous Agriculture and living activity Animals Rice fields
Industry and energy production Losses during gas and oil mining Losses during coal mining Industrial pollution and sewage waste Motor transport Total
105-300 37-150 10-80 1.3-13 153.3-543
300 150 80 13
200 350 160 70
200 60-80 50 2
global scale are necessary in order to finalize quantitative estimations of methane emissions from concrete lithosphere sources.
See also: Carbon Cycle; Climate Change 1: Short-Term Dynamics; Climate Change 2: Long-Term Dynamics; Climate Change 3: History and Current State; Coevolution of the Biosphere and Climate.
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