Cryptophytes ('hidden plants') are those with buds beneath the substratum, for example, in the soil, water, or in the soil under water (Figures 2E-2I). Plants classified in this category are subdivided into geophytes, helophytes, and hydrophytes. Geophytes have tuberous subterranean organs (leaf bases, roots, or stems) filled with stored food, which provides for rapid growth with the return of favorable climatic conditions (e.g., Allium, Solanun, and Podophyllum) (Figure 2F). Helophytes are emergent marsh plants with renewal buds located beneath the soil-water interface (e.g., Typha) (Figure 2G). Hydrophytes include free-floating forms and those that are rooted but do not emerge above water level (e.g., Lemna and Potamogeton, respectively) (Figures 2H-2I).

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