A working knowledge of the movement and effects of environmental contaminants is recognized worldwide as essential to maintaining an acceptable quality to life. Ecotoxicology has emerged as the applied science that addresses the central issues of contaminants in the biosphere. Major challenges in this young science include the following: (1) the integration of causal explanations and knowledge arising at different levels of biological organization into a coherent whole; (2) integration of scientific, technical, and practical goals of ecotoxicologists; and (3) consideration of ecotoxicological issues at increasingly wider spatial and longer temporal scales.
See also: Bioaccumulation; Biogeochemical Approaches to Environmental Risk Assessment; Biomagnification; Ecological Risk Assessment; Metapopulation Models.
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