Floating-leaved macrophytes include plant species which are rooted in the substrate and their leaves float on the water surface. Nymphaea spp. (waterlilies), Nuphar lutea (European cowlily, yellow waterlily, spatterdock), and Nelumbo nucifera (Indian lotus) are typical representatives of this group. So far, only few systems (Figure 2d) have used this type ofvegetation, for example, at Bainikeng in China one pond is planted with Indian lotus together with water hyacinth. Nymphae and Nuphar are common in more open water systems. However, most of these plants grow voluntarily in FWS CWs (Figure 15) but their role in the treatment process is difficult to assess.
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