Free-floating macrophytes are highly diverse in form and habit, ranging from large plants with rosettes of aerial and/or floating leaves and well-developed submerged roots (e.g., Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) or Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce)) to minute surface-floating plants with few or no roots (Lemnaceae, duckweed; e.g., Lemna spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffia spp). However, the two most frequently used free-floating plants for wastewater treatment are water hyacinth and duckweed. Schematic representation of a CW with free-floating macrophytes is shown in Figure 2 c.
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