Adaptation and self-organization are impossible without information and controlling processes, that is, without realization of cybernetic principles. Cybernetic mechanisms can be found at all the levels of life, from biochemical processes to biosphere.
Self-regulation is a process of changing functionality of the system directed at its conservation. It is development of property of inanimate systems expressed by the Le Chatelier principle (1884) - external influence on the system's state is compensated by internal processes, influenced in the opposite direction. The law's version for open systems can be formulated as the following: an increase of the system's input leads to corresponding increase of its output. This reaction is passive and does not need energy.
For biological systems, it is very typical to use active methods to keep the system's steady state (maintain 'homeostasis'). One of the ways is to follow the cybernetic principle of'negative feedback'; the output of some part of the system must influence its input - if the output is too large, the input is decreased, and vice versa.
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