The process of (forest) desertification is a specific type of combining deforestation and degradation. The UNCCD defines desertification as land degradation in the arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. Current drylands occupy 5.4 x 109 ha (-40% of the world land's area) of which 3.5-4.0 x 109ha (57-65%) is either desertified or prone to desertification. Recently, a term of'green desertification' was introduced for the boreal biome, meaning a long-term (more than the life span of major forest-forming tree species) replacement of forests by grass-, shrub-, and wetlands, mostly due to disturbances (e.g., fire), the extent, frequency, and severity of which exceed the restoration capacity of forest ecosystems.
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