Driver PressureState ImpactResponse

The intrinsic value of the DPSIR model emerges from the interaction of its components. As different cause and effect chains are included in the model and because it is intended as an iterative loop, the DPSIR model is adaptive to arising changes and developments. This adaptation potential includes environmental alterations as well as changes within the socioeconomic system.

The DPSIR approach is very useful in conceptual modeling and analyzing causes and effects of human activities. In particular cases it may be too comprehensive on the one hand and on the other hand not detailed enough to sufficiently depict indicator-indicandum relations. Nevertheless, the DPSIR framework can be used as basis for alternative model derivations. An example for a conceptual model ofhuman-environmental relationships based on the DPSIR approach including land use, ecological integrity, and the provision of ecosystem services is given in Figure 3.

FAO Livestock, Environment and Development Initiative

(LEAD) (1999) http://lead.virtualcentre.org/en/dec/toolbox/Refer/ EnvIndi.htm.

Hardi P and Pinter L (1995) Models and Methods of Measuring Sustainable Development Performance. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2003) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being. Washington: Island Press.

OECD (2003) OECD environmental indicators. Development,

Measurement and Use. Paris: OECD. Retrieved on 18 August 2006 from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecdZ7/47/24993546.pdf.

OECD (1993) OECD core set of indicators for environmental performance reviews. OECD Environment Monographs 83. Paris: OECD.

Vacik H, Wolfslehner B, Seidl R, and Lexer MJ (2006) Integrating the DPSIR - approach and the analytical network process for the assessment of forest management strategies. In: Reynolds KM (ed.) Proceedings of the IUFRO conference on sustainable Forestry in theory and practice. Edinburgh, Scotland, 5-8 April 2005. Portland: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-688.

Figure S DPSIR-based model of human-environmental systems.

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