The intrinsic value of the DPSIR model emerges from the interaction of its components. As different cause and effect chains are included in the model and because it is intended as an iterative loop, the DPSIR model is adaptive to arising changes and developments. This adaptation potential includes environmental alterations as well as changes within the socioeconomic system.
The DPSIR approach is very useful in conceptual modeling and analyzing causes and effects of human activities. In particular cases it may be too comprehensive on the one hand and on the other hand not detailed enough to sufficiently depict indicator-indicandum relations. Nevertheless, the DPSIR framework can be used as basis for alternative model derivations. An example for a conceptual model ofhuman-environmental relationships based on the DPSIR approach including land use, ecological integrity, and the provision of ecosystem services is given in Figure 3.
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Figure S DPSIR-based model of human-environmental systems.
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