Plant-herbivore interactions can have long-term, complex ecosystem-level consequences, and plant defenses play a role in that dynamic. Research on beaver, moose, wolves, and boreal forest provides an example. Moose are ruminants, with a four-chambered stomach and microbial symbionts that aid digestion of low-protein, tough (via cellulose and lignin) and sublethally noxious or toxic plant matter. A moose can consume 5-6 metric tons of plant material per year. Moose prefer an array of aquatic macrophytes, herbs,
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