Emergy of the Geobiosphere The Basis for Computing UEVs

1. Annual budget of mergy supporting the geobiosphere. The annual budget of emergy flow (empower) supporting the geobiosphere including the atmosphere, ocean, and Earth crust includes three sources of energy: solar energy, tidal energy, and heat energy from the deep Earth (Figure 4). When evaluated in solar emergy, these contributions to the geobiosphere total about 15.83E24sej yr- (Table 1).

2. Average UEVs for main global processes. Table 2 lists UEVs for some main flows of the Earth. The total emergy input to the geobiosphere in solar emergy (15.83E24sej yr-1 from Table 1) is divided by each of the global product's ordinary measure (number of joules or grams). The UEVs that result are useful for other emergy evaluations where global averages can be used.

3. Temporary emergy inputs to the geobiosphere. In the last two centuries, the consumption of geologic storages of fuels and minerals by human civilization have reached a scale with global impact. These resources are sometimes called nonrenewable because they are being used much faster than they are being generated in geologic cycles. They are actually very slowly renewed resources. Table 3 summarizes the most important of these additional components of the global emergy budget.

At present, when measured at the global scale, nonrenew-able emergy use by human civilization is about 2.5 times greater than the inputs from renewable sources. The result

Figure 4 The geobiosphere is driven by three main sources of energy: solar, deep heat (residual plus radioactive decay), and tidal momentum. For a full explanation of their solar equivalents, see Odum HT (2000) Handbook of Emergy Evaluation, Folio 2: Emergy of Global Processes, 30pp. Gainesville, FL: Center for Environmental Policy, University of Florida. http:// www.emergysystems.org/downloads/Folios/Folio_2.pdf (accessed December 2007).

Figure 4 The geobiosphere is driven by three main sources of energy: solar, deep heat (residual plus radioactive decay), and tidal momentum. For a full explanation of their solar equivalents, see Odum HT (2000) Handbook of Emergy Evaluation, Folio 2: Emergy of Global Processes, 30pp. Gainesville, FL: Center for Environmental Policy, University of Florida. http:// www.emergysystems.org/downloads/Folios/Folio_2.pdf (accessed December 2007).

of this 'temporary surge' of emergy is the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere adding to the greenhouse effects that may be altering temperatures of the oceans and ultimately the pattern and intensity of weather. The sum of renewable and nonrenewable emergy contribution to the global systems in 2005 was 57.9E24sej yr~ .

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