The concept of 'engineering resilience' was originally introduced by Holling and is understood as 'the time a system requires in order to return to equilibrium after a perturbation'. With this notion it is assumed that the system will eventually return to its previous equilibrium that must be global, and resilience would reflect the time needed for this to occur. This dynamic behavior is termed engineering resilience. The term can be explained by the 'engineering' optimality single operating objective, and is also used in other disciplines such as physics, control theory, and engineering.
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