Evolutionary Role of Indirect Effects

It has been postulated by a number of authors, and has been proved mathematically by Fath and Patten, that indirect effects often promote coexistence and the role of indirect effects should, in general, increase in the course of evolution. For example, in grassland communities containing Rumex spp., insect herbivory (by Gastrophysa viridula) appears to be a cost inherent in the development of plants' resistance to pathogenic fungi (Uromyces rumicus). Another example relates to the fact that infection of plants with endophytic fungi often enhances plants' competitive abilities via deterring grazers by production of toxic compounds (as a result, some plants might have coevolved together with their endo-phytes, for example, coupled evolution of Festuca and Acremonium spp.).

It should be noted, that indirect effects are important for the evolution of not only natural, but also industrial ecosystems. Traditionally, human society has developed without the necessary due respect to the rules and processes governing the stability of its environment. However, by analogy with natural ecosystems (i.e., as regards recycling and cascading networks) industrial ecosystems should aim to facilitate the development of recycling and cascading cooperative systems by minimizing the energy consumption, generation of wastes, emissions, and input of raw materials.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Worm Farming

Worm Farming

Do You Want To Learn More About Green Living That Can Save You Money? Discover How To Create A Worm Farm From Scratch! Recycling has caught on with a more people as the years go by. Well, now theres another way to recycle that may seem unconventional at first, but it can save you money down the road.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment