Three example IBMs are briefly described. The coyote model is an example of an IBM that does not explicitly include adaptive behavior. Rather, individuals behave according to empirically determined rates or probabilities. The shorebird model, in contrast, explicitly represents adaptive behavior: each bird is, on a timescale of several hours, making decisions where to move and feed in the habitat. Gap models, finally, have a very long and successful history in ecological modeling of forests.

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