Further Reading

Caro TM (1994) Ungulate antipredator behavior: Preliminary and comparative data from African bovids. Behaviour 128:189-228.

Chase JM, Abrams PA, Grover JP, et al. (2002) The interaction between predation and competition: A review and synthesis. Ecology Letters 5: 302-315.

Coss RG and Owings DH (1985) Restraints on ground squirrel antipredator behavior: Adjustments over multiple time scales. In: Johnston TD and Pietrewicz A (eds.) Issues in the Ecological Study of Learning, pp. 167-200. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Dugatkin LA and Godin J-GJ (1992) Prey approaching predators: A cost-benefit perspective. Annales Zoologici Fennici 29: 233-252.

Elgar MA (1989) Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: A critical review of the empirical evidence. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 64: 13-33.

Fitzgibbon CD (1994) The costs and benefits of predator inspection behaviour in Thomson's gazelles. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 34: 139-148.

Kerfoot WC and Sih A (eds.) (1987) Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Kruuk H (1972) The Spotted Hyena: A Study of Predation and Social Behavior. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Lima SL (1998) Stress and decision making under the risk of predation: Recent developments from behavioral, reproductive, and ecological perspectives. Advances in the Study of Behavior 27: 215-290.

Magurran AE, Seghers BH, Shaw PW, and Carvalho GR (1995) The behavioral diversity and evolution of guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in Trinidad. Advances in the Study of Behavior 24: 155-202.

Pulliam R (1973) On the advantages of flocking. Journal of Theoretical Biology 38: 419-422.

Reznick DA, Bryga H, and Endler JA (1990) Experimentally induced life-history evolution in a natural population. Nature 346: 357-359.

Sherman PW (1977) Nepotism and the evolution of alarm calls. Science 197: 1246-1253.

Sih A, Crowley P, McPeek M, Petranka J, and Strohmeier K (1985) Predation, competition, and prey communities: A review of field experiments. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 269-311.

Stanford CB (1998) Chimpanzee and Red Colobus: The Ecology of Predator and Prey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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